February 14, 2018 is very very special as Valentine’s Day and Ash Wednesday will be sharing centre stage on that day. Makes for great drama and intrigue. Romance vs Penance. No doubt, Valentine Day and Ash Wednesdays are not jokes and silly notions, however they have set up a climax with Easter Sunday falling on April 1, All Fools’ Day. Hoping no one gets fooled.

Chances are, this is the first time you are experiencing this unusual occurrence as the last time it happened was in 1945. Most of us know February 14 as the day when we deck out our red and white outfits; send poems and buy gifts; express love and romance and of course a lot of sex, lewdness and at times even debauchery.

Well, this year, Ash Wednesday finds itself on February 14 and is threatening to temper this aura of romance with its insistence on penitence, repentance, sadness, and mourning. What a contrast. Imagine mourning and fun and frolicking on the same day. Is this a choice?

Of course, you might be wondering which of the two rituals will win. Which will get more recognition? Valentine’s Day or Ash Wednesday? Will there be romance or penance? Maybe, there could be a draw with no clear winner. A bit of romance and a bit of penance. Hmmm, now that is complicated.

Then again it might not matter which one wins because they both serve the same purpose: they both are agrarian/pastoral attempts to get the favours of the gods to ensure a great Spring and farming. One does it with lewdness and one does it with shrewdness. The winner is the seasons or more simply, nature.

The Origins of Valentine’s Day (February 13 – 15)

(Februarius) February got its name from the thongs (known as februa) cut from the flayed skin of sacrificial male goats and dogs which were killed to favour the agricultural gods during that time of the year. Most of the observances in this month concerned the dead or closure, reflecting the month’s original position at the end of the year. It must be noted that the calendar had February at the end of the year but Julius Caesar decided in 46 BC to move the start of the calendar from the traditionally beginning of March to the beginning of January.

The spring cleansing ritual of Februa (February 13 – 15) involved sacrifices, lewdness and eroticism. It evolved into  the Lupercalia as called by the Romans or Pan as called by the Greeks. The Lupercus (god of the flocks) was nude, save for a goatskin girdle.

Valentine days Lupercalia
Lupercus, god of the flocks and , forerunner to Valentine’s Day

At the Lupercal altar, a male goat (or goats) and a dog were sacrificed under the supervision of the  chief priest. Goats and dogs were chosen as they are animals remarkable for their strong sexual instinct, and thus most appropriate sacrifices to the god of fertility.

An offering was also made of salted mealcakes, prepared by the vestal virgins. After the blood sacrifice, two Luperci (priests) approached the altar. Their foreheads were anointed with blood from the sacrificial knife, then wiped clean with wool soaked in milk, after which they were expected to smile and/or laugh. (Red and White on February 14?).

The sacrificial feast followed, after which the Luperci cut thongs (known as februa) from the flayed skin of the victim, and ran with these, naked or near-naked, up and down through the streets, for sport and laughter striking those they meet with shaggy thongs. Many women purposely get in their way, hoping to be struck, believing that the if they are pregnant it would help with delivery and if they were are barren they would get pregnant. (Mardi Gras or Fat Tuesday?).

The rituals also included a matchmaking kind of pixie draw, in which young men drew the names of women from a jar. The couple would then have sex for the duration of the festival — or longer, if the match was right.

Note that the Lupercali festivals and worship were practiced before the birth and death of Christ and was quite acceptable among the common folks and gentry. However, it was considered abominable by Jehovah and the Jews. With the conversion of Rome to Christianity in AD 326, attempts were made to “reposition” the idol worships of the ancient fathers into a frame of mind that would be palatable and more becoming for purists and folks who were “trying to serve Jehovah”.

Fortunately, by coincident or design, a priest named St. Valentine, was imprisoned by the emperor of Rome, Claudius II for assisting persecuted Christians and secretly marrying Christian couples in love. As the story goes, during Valentine’s imprisonment he tried converting Claudius to Christianity. Claudius became enraged and ordered Valentine to reject his faith or be killed. He refused to forsake his faith, so Valentine was beheaded  on February 14.

The story also included an account that happened during Valentine’s imprisonment after he tutored a girl named Julia, the blind daughter of his jailer. The legend states God restored Julia’s sight after she and Valentine prayed together. On the eve of his execution, Valentine supposedly penned a note to Julia and signed it, “From your Valentine.”

The Catholic Church declared him a saint and listed him in Roman Martyrology as being martyred on February 14. In the late 5th century A.D., Pope Gelasius I eliminated the pagan celebration of Lupercalia and declared February 14 a day to celebrate the martyrdom of Saint Valentine.

Interestingly, many of the traditions of Februa and Lupercalia were usurped or continued under the banner of Valentine’s Day. As mentioned, use of red represented the blood sacrifice during Lupercalia and the color white signified the milk used to wipe the blood clean and represents new life and procreation. The sex, promiscuity and romance were done to enhance fertility.

As seen, the rebranding of February 14 and Lupercalia worship as Valentine’s Day is an easier sell to get converts. Today’s discerning population will prefer to buy a product packaged with a chubby priest  than the use of that horrible looking half naked man dressed in goat clothing. Of course, we know an apple called by any other name is still an apple.

Such is the story of Valentine’s Day origin. Let’s look at the seemingly contradictory approach to fertility, called Ash Wednesday, that suggests penance and abstinence.


The Origins of Ash Wednesday

The worship of Lent is a fore runner to Ash Wednesday.  Similar to how Lupercalia became Valentine’s Day. The term Lent is a shortened form of Lenten, which derives from the Old English term lencten, which means spring.  This word is from the Old English root word lang which means long.  Lent thus refers to the Spring because it is the season when the days begin to lengthen.

In biblical times, Lent was a period of penance and abstinence for forty (40) days to mourn the death of Tammuz (a day for each year of his life as he was killed at age 40). At the end of the mourning, on a Sunday near the Spring Equinox,  Tammuz would come back to life and the agriculture would flourish and the animals fertile. The 40 day mourning and penance had to end on the Sunday after the first full moon after March 21 to coincide with the worship of Easter, the goddess of fertility.

Ash Wednesday Tammuz
Tammuz, god of fertility embodying the powers for new life in nature in the spring. (is that a cross?)

You may be curious as to who was Tammuz. As we will soon realize, man also made gods in his own image and likeness. Tammuz, the god of fertility, was one such god. He was paraded as the immaculate conceived son of a great woman called Semiramis who, some legend has it, later became the Queen of Heaven,  Easter or Ashtoreth as Isaiah and Ezekiel called her. (see below for more information on this mother/child relationship).

Lent was accepted into the beliefs of the Catholic Church at the Council of Nicaea in 325 AD. The council also settled upon the 40-day fast period as the standard length to celebrate Lent.  During this time period Constantine’s (emperor of Rome) goal was to combine pagans and Christians into a peaceable unit within the Roman kingdom.

In 601, Pope Gregory moved the beginning of Lent from the fourth Sunday of the year to Ash Wednesday, 46 days before Easter. This changed allowed for 40 days of fasting with six Sundays counted as feast days, for a total of 46 days for Lent.

The interesting thing about Lent or Ash Wednesday is that it is attached to Easter. Ash Wednesday, the beginning of Lent, is determined after the date of Easter has been designated. Easter begins on the Friday after the first full moon after the Spring Equinox, which is March 21. By ecclesiastical rules, which fixes the date of the equinox to March 21, the earliest possible date for Easter is March 22 and the latest possible is April 25.

Accordingly, Ash Wednesday can be as earl y as February 4 and as late as March 11. It all depends on when the moon fulls after March 21 and counting backwards for 46 days from Easter Sunday to determine the beginning of Lent. 

Wait a minute. I am sure if you were brought up in a nice Christian home like I did, you will be getting a bit puzzled now. What does the full moon, and beginning of Spring (March 21) got to do with Lent and Easter? The answer is everything. They both depends on the full moon after the spring equinox.

To fully appreciate the origins of Lent and Easter we must look back at where it all started. Thousands of years ago, man was very dependent on nature and its predictable yet uncertain behaviour. They quickly realized that the Sun, Moon and stars had a far-reaching impact and influence on harvests and live stocks.

As reasonable folks or better yet, as shrewd folks, they tried to give reverence and recognition to this profound fact. Common sense would dictate that the reverence be given to the Creator of the sun and moon but guess what, so far, no one has seen the maker of the sun and moon.

So man, being as creative as he is, decided to make gods in his own image, likeness and understanding. A god for everything of great importance. The sun was called the god of life and the moon was the goddess of fertility. Venus and Cupid took care of Love and Thor took care of war. You get the drift.

The greatest thing about this multi theism was that these gods were not jealous of each other. Each had his or her own affair and actually worked together. (Contrast this with Jehovah who is said to be so Jealous that he is biased and prejudiced in that he will destroy those who serve other gods and take care of those who serve him).

Sentiments aside, let’s look at how the myths and legends explain the rituals and practices surrounding the worshipping of Lent and Easter.

According to the original and genuine Easter story, Ashtoreth/Easter (the goddess of fertility) was worshipped as the provider and re-starter of all life at Spring (March 21). She is also believed to be the deification of the infamous Semiramis,  the wife of Nimrod, of bible fame. Recall the tower of babel great hunter. We learnt about him at Sunday School and how he was against Jehovah.

It is unclear how Nimrod died as in in the Book of Jasher it is said that Esau, son of Isaac) killed him; while Josephus states that Shem, the son of Noah, killed nimrod. However, after his death, Nimrod body ascended into the heavens and became the sun god himself. A bit horrifying but here comes the romantic part. Nimrod, the sun god, became rays of light and implanted his seed into his wife, Semiramis now a widow, and impregnate her. (Virgin mother and child?).   Ash Wednesday semiramis.tammuz

The myth further stated that the child  was called Tammuz , son of the sun god. He was responsible for bringing light into the world and to fight darkness. Can you guess when Tammuz was born? If you said at the Winter Solstice (December 22 – 25) you are correct. For those steeped in religious studies, you will recall that Invictus Sol (the unconquerable sun) was born on the shortest day of the year or the Saturnalia (December 22 -25) and we worship him today every December 25. That is Tammuz. Some customs called him Baal, or Mithra and more recently Jesus Christ, to legitimize its worship. Again, an apple by any other name is still an apple. Click here to See my blog on December 25 worship

The myth climaxed with the idea that Tammuz, at age 40, went hunting and was killed by a boar (hog, pig..same thing….how fitting). In order to bring back her son (Tammuz) to life an elaborate scheme was devised. The idea required forty (40) days of mourning for Tammuz (a day for each year of his life). At the end of 40 day mourning, Tammuz returns to life on the Sunday after the first full moon after March 21. Abstinence from meat, self and lust was the order of the day for the 40 days of Lent. At the end of Lent, a boar is killed and ham is eaten. Sweet revenge on the pig that killed Tammuz.

As the myth would have it, Tammuz mother, Semiramis died and the gods looked favorably on her as she was the mother of the son of the sun god. She was sent back to earth as the Spring fertility goddess, Ashtoreth/Easter, always shown as a well endowed bare breasted  queen of fertility. According to the myth, she emerged from a giant egg that landed in the Euphrates river at sunrise on the Sunday after the full moon after the Spring equinox.

Semiramis, the queen of heaven, was “born again” as the goddess Easter (Ashtarte). To prove her divine authority, Semiramis, now Ashtoreth/Easter, changed a bird into an egg laying rabbit. Decorated eggs and stories about rabbits are still part of today’s Easter ritual.

Easter Ishtar

As the cult of Ishtar developed, the priests would impregnate young virgins on the altar of the goddess of fertility at sunrise on Easter Sunday. A year later the priests of Easter would sacrifice these three-month old babies on the altar at the front of the sanctuary and dye Easter eggs in the blood of the sacrificed infants.

You must be saying wow. You knew Easter was bloody but it was suppose to be the blood of Jesus, that was shed to save the sins of the world.

Indeed, Christians are quick and proud to recognized Good Friday and Easter Sunday as Christ’s death and resurrection day. It is with good intentions that they do such acts of passion but the evidence show that the crucifixion of Christ was only attached to Easter, 300 years after Christ died. Furthermore, the math and prophecies suggest that a Friday death and Sunday resurrection would not fit in with the “three days and three nights” requirement for the Christ to be dead and then resurrected. (Friday evening to Sunday morning is one day and two nights).

Interestingly, it should be noted that the new testament even mention Easter by name and being around at the time of Christ and the Peter the disciple. Acts 12: 4 state that And when he had apprehended him, he put him in prison, and delivered him to four quaternions of soldiers to keep him; intending after Easter to bring him forth to the people. (Seems the Romans were already worhsipping Easter). 

So the true meaning of Easter Sunday is originally for the day Tammuz was resurrected and neatly too the day when his mother, Semiramis, was returned to earth as Ashtoreth/Easter/Ishtar the goddess of fertility.

The major contention that many people have with the Friday and Sunday idea of Christ’s death and resurrection has to do with the fact that the Gospels mentioned Christ as being killed the day before the Sabbath. Of course we all know that Friday is the day before the weekly Saturday Sabbath. However, most elementary school students will let you know that if Christ was killed on “Good Friday” evening and raised from the dead on Easter Sunday morning, he would be lying or his math poor as this is only one day and two nights.

Why is this contentious? Well, if we are to believe the scriptures and Christ, then Christ must be dead for three days and three nights. “For as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale’s belly; so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.” (Matthew 12:38-40).


If according to the “new” Easter story Christ died on a Friday and raised on a Sunday then we have a problem. Are the gospels wrong? The answer is no. Christ was actually killed on a Wednesday, the day before a Sabbath but it was not the regular weekly Saturday Sabbath. Many of us do not know that the Jews had annual Sabbaths. As a matter of fact, two extra Sabbaths called High Sabbaths  are observed every year in Nissan 14 (March or April). As a result, there are two Sabbaths every year in March/April.

These High Sabbaths don’t have to be on a Saturday as they are dates not days. They are celebrated to recognize the Passover and Israel’s miraculous exodus from Pharaoh’s Egypt.

Recall the Exodus story and the Passover? Well, before I graduated from Sunday School, I was taught the Passover story of how Moses got the Hebrew people out of the land of Egypt after being enslaved for years. Of course, the Hebrews were only set free after  Jehovah killed all first born in Egypt. During the slaughter, the Hebrews who had killed  animals for the last meal in Egypt, use the blood to smear the posts of their houses and the Lord passed over them and none was killed. Exodus 11:4-5. 

Ash Wednesday Passover

Hence the creation of the Passover and the two High Sabbaths which were required to be commemorated annually by the Israelite.   Leviticus 23:5-8In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at twilight is Yahweh’s Passover. 6 ‘Then on the fifteenth day of the same month there is the Feast of Unleavened Bread to Yahweh; for seven days you shall eat unleavened bread. 7 ‘On the first day of the 7 days you shall have a holy convocation; you shall not do any laborious work. On the seventh day is a holy convocation; you shall not do any laborious work.'”

As mentioned, these two holy convocation or High Sabbath sometimes fall in the same week of Easter and sometimes they are not. The year when Christ was killed, the week of Passover and the Feast of the Unleavened bread fell in Easter week, Wednesday (High Sabbath) and on Saturday, normal Sabbath.

For example, this year Passover 2018 will begin in the evening of Friday, 30 March and ends in the evening of Saturday, 7 April. As such this year we will see two Sabbaths in one.  The High Sabbath and the weekly Saturday Sabbath will both occur on Friday evening March 30, to Saturday evening March 31. On the other hand Easter is Sunday April 1. Noticed how Easter is always a Sunday while the High Sabbath and Passover can be week days or even the Saturday Sabbath.

Summarily, the bible mentioned two Sabbaths during the week of Christ’s death. The annual High Sabbath which occurred the Wednesday Christ was killed and the weekly Saturday Sabbath, the evening he rose.

Still a bit fuzzy? Let’s use the Gospels as our guide to get a clear idea of the timeline for Christ’s death.


DAY/TIME EVENTS Days/night of death
Palm Sunday
  • Christ rode into Jerusalem town
  • Went into the temple and whipped the money exchangers and turn over their tables. Felony?
  • Called the temple a “den of robbers and thieves”.
  • He healed some sick people and then spent the night in Bethany.  Matthew 21:1-16
  • Spent his time preaching in the temple
  • Spoke parables such as the wicked tenants,
  • Discussed his views on the right to pay taxes
  • Declared that the greatest commandment is that we should love the Lord thy god with all our heart, soul and mind.
  • Curse out the Pharisees.
  • Upon leaving the temple he told the parable of the 10 virgins.
  • Judas went to the authorities. Matthew 21:23-27
  • No teaching
  • Back to Jerusalem Matthew 26:17-19
  • Passover meal in the evening, at about 6 pm in Jerusalem.
  • Exposed Judas.
  • After the meal they went to the garden of Gethsemane
  • arrested and brought before the Jews later in the night. Matthew 26:47-56
  • Passover ends at 6 am
  • Tried and whipped early morning, 9 am Matthew 27:2-50
  • Crucified at midday
  • Dead at 3 pm
  • removed from the cross, wrapped in linen and placed in a tomb before 6 pm.
  • No time to prepare his body for burial as they had to prepare for the Annual Sabbath in a few hours.
  • Annual High Sabbath (Feast of unleavened bread) begins at 6 pm.
First night (6 pm – 6 am)
  • Christ is already dead. Luke 23:43-46
  • Annual High Sabbath (Feast of unleavened bread) continued.
  • High Sabbath ends 6 pm
First day (6 am to 6 pm)

Second night (6 pm – 6 am)

  • Christ is already dead
  • After the end of the High sabbath Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, bought spices, that they might come and anoint the dead. Mark 16:1
  • Spices were prepared in the day on Friday but they had to stop for the Saturday Sabbath was approaching. They intended to come back first thing Sunday morning to anoint the body.
  • The women rested on the Saturday Sabbath day (starting from 6 pm Friday evening). Luke 23:55 – 24:1
Second day (6 am to 6 pm)

Third night (6 pm – 6 am)

  • Christ is already dead in the morning
  • Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James continue resting during the Saturday Sabbath until it ended on  Saturday evening at 6 pm)
  • Christ risen around 6 pm, Saturday evening.
Third day

(6 am to 6 pm)

  • Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James visit Jesus tomb on the Sunday, first day of the week. . 6 am. Matthew 28:1-10
  • Christ already risen from Saturday (6pm)

Note that the Jewish day starts and ends at six o’clock in the evening, while our day starts and ends at midnight,

If the gospels are right that Christ fulfilled the prophecy and was dead for three days and three nights it questions the premise on which Easter is currently associated with Christ’s death.

For the fun of it, let’s take a quick look at Easter, as it was in the time of the prophets such as Isaiah and Ezekiel, thousands of years before Jesus Christ was born. Yeah,as we noted, Easter was around long before Christ was even born. Ashtoreth/Easter is mentioned in the old testament and in every instance that Easter is mentioned, Jehovah, the god of the Hebrews/Isrealites is pretty much annoyed, and in vengeance mode. A top flight Jamaican DJ, Bounti Killer, would say.. “cross, angry and miserable”.

Ezek 8:14 Then he brought me to the door of the gate of the LORD’S house which was toward the north; and, behold, there sat women weeping for Tammuz. (Lent) 

2 Ki 23:13 And the high places that were before Jerusalem, which were on the right hand of the mount of corruption, which Solomon the king of Israel had builded for Ashtoreth the abomination of the Zidonians, and for Chemosh the abomination of the Moabites, and for Milcom the abomination of the children of Ammon, did the king defile.

1 Kings 11:5-6. He followed Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians, and Molech the detestable god of the Ammonites.  So Solomon did evil in the eyes of Yahweh; he did not follow Yahweh completely, as David his father had done.

1 Kings 11:33. I will do this (split the nation) because they have forsaken me and worshiped Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians…., , and have not walked in my ways, nor done what is right in my eyes, nor kept my statutes and laws as David, Solomon’s father did.

So the people of Israel removed the Baals and images of Ashtoreth. They served only Yahuwah.  (1 Samuel 7:3,4)

These “images” are referring to the idols and statues of Ishtar, the fertility goddess of the Philistines, who is depicted with large, bare breasts.  (Some say she is now the  Statue of Liberty).


Valentine’s Day and Ash Wednesday have both been dear to our hearts for years. The romance associated with Valentine’s Day has allowed us to express love in many ways. The penance shown during Lent starting at Ash Wednesday, reminds us of our mortality and dependence on nature.

History, however is muddling this rosy picture of Valentine’s Day and is suggesting that Valentine’s Day is a mere continuation of Lupercalia, an ancient agrarian erotic fertility festival that was held near the Ides of February (February 13-15). The festival involved shedding the blood of a sacrificial goat and then dipping a piece of its skin in its blood after which it was used to smear the priests and then wiped clean with milk. (Is this the red and white).

Ash Wednesday has not escaped the glare of history. Many myths and legends suggest that Lent was also an ancient pagan festival devoted to Tammuz, the god of fertility who was the son of the infamous Semiramis who became Easter, on the Sunday after the full moon at the Spring Equinox. . The horrifying stories of three month old children being killed to appease these gods at Easter  might make Satan blush. Then again, they might just be his proxies.

With this in mind, it seems that although both Valentine’s Day and Ash Wednesday have served us well and seems to be good for us, they can be poisonous. Hmmm, Poisoning. Poison, but you are good for me?

Can’t resist the temptation to share a song done by my daughter, Aneil, called Poison. It’s quite befitting for Valentine’s Day. It tells of a heart that is being motivated and being made special albeit by something that is already “owned”. This dilemma is profound as it provides the choice of running away or staying and fighting and ruling the world with it. Seems, it can be poisoning but also good for you. Verse 1 lyrics are below. Please watch the video on YouTube by clicking here… ANEIL – POISON (Official Lyrics Video)


Verse 1

Aneil Poison You tube video artwork small version for yt
Aneil – Poison. Official lyric videos

Your love is poison
But oh baby I want it
And oh baby I’m ‘on it’ (ye ey ey ey ey)

Ya take my mind on a roadtrip
My mind can’t behold it
All the tantalizing things that you say

You do for me what sanity won’t
And that is to be your only girl
In reality it’s so wrong
Because you are already ‘owned’
Your love’s like that drug; can’t get enough
ECG shows my heart all over the charts

You make me wanna ru-u-un, sta-a-ay, fight and rule the world (x2) with you
You’re poisoning
You’re poison, but you good for me

Do check out the song on YouTube by clicking on the Poison logo.

Maybe, this February 14, we can make it special with love and penance by sharing our time and resources with the less fortunate. That is godly and requires no ritual such as those on Valentine or Ash Wednesday. Just natural out-flowing love and sorrow that should be shown 365 days a year and 366 days in a leap year. Oh what a lovely world it would be.



Food n Music 1st Anniversary Concert 400 x 400It has been quite a quiet but eventful two years since debutante singer, Aneil, released her first single “Let Me Be” on June 25, 2015 on the WordFoodMusic label. This young singing aspirant was not bothered much when her single was released without fanfare or the “required” press and public relations pieces. In fact, this non publicity is quite typical among Do It Yourself (DYI) artistes who struggle to balance the music and the business.

However, at times, the lack of puffery and fanfare can be a blessing in disguise as it can allow the artiste to focus on the art instead of on the craft.

Aneil @ Atlanta Jerk Fest Sept 2015. Click to watch

Accordingly, despite the lack of fanfare, “Let Me Be” quickly copped the “Big Tune” award on Roots 96.1 FM in Kingston on June 28,  2015. On September 6, Aneil did her debut concert performance at the Grace Atlanta Caribbean Jerk Festival in Georgia, USA; followed up with a September 17, live radio interview with DJ Roy on Irie Jam Radio 93.5 FM in New York. (Watch the concert and the interview  by clicking the link or photo below

A few days later, on September 19, Aneil was guest performance at the  Konekt-Dat band Showcase in Manhattan, New York and closed Summer 2015 with a live radio interview with Glen Simmonds on WRFG 89.3 FM, Atlanta, USA on October 19.

2016 saw Aneil continuing with the honing of her theatrical skills with the Aneil and Friends Concert series at Comfitanya in St. Andrew Jamaica. The series kicked of with Cameal Davis, D’Vercity and Delroy Melody on April 30, 2016 and since then other acts/friends included Abijah, Asante Amen, Chinna, Carl Dawkins Jr, Jordan Mais and the Rebelistic band, the Legend band,   and more. The series continues with next show in July 2017.  Aneil has also done cameo performances at Triple Century and is a pleasant staple at formal functions at the University of Technology, Jamaica.

Born Anita Neil in 1991 in St. Andrew, and nurtured in St. Ann, Aneil has developed from church choir girl (1999 – 2005), to Music band opening act (2003 – 2006, sharing stage with popular artistes such as Leroy Sibles, Richie Spice and the late Edi Fitzroy.)

Aneil’s debut song “Let Me Be”. Click to watch.

Academically inclined, in 2006, Aneil took a hiatus from music and, inter alia, successfully completed her Bachelor’s of Science degree in Management Studies at the University of the West Indies and developed her skills in customer service. A lover of animals and children and armed with a gorgeous voice, potent lyrics and a sense of purpose, Aneil re-entered the music scene in 2014 and has been prodding along the milestones on her journey.

Aneil’s debut “Let Me Be” is an original song written by her and recorded at Stage One Studios, Jamaica under the guidance of Grub Cooper of Fab Five Band. Interestingly, Grub Cooper also helped in coining Aneil’s recording and stage name. The song was released in MP3 format on iTunes, Amazon and other digital stores June 25, 2017.

Kibony, Aneil and DJ Roy at Irie Jam, NY. Click to watch interview

As DJ Roy commented on Irie Jam 93.5 FM, “I don’t claim to be the authority on music, but I have an ear for music and the first time I heard the song (Let Me Be) I said, Great Song”. (Click on the picture and listen on YouTube and agree or disagree).

Since the release of the song, Aneil has silently been building up a small loyal fan base that will prove of immense value for entering a dynamic and rigid music industry. Her second single, “This is love” is being fine-tuned for a mid-summer release. Click to listen a sneak preview”.

“This is love”: watch sneak preview.

Aneil’s journey continues and Summer 2017 will be  the one filled with love.  Keep up with the journey on:

instagram logo      Soundcloud logo    itune logo  facebook logo

WFM logo_concepts coloured orihinal 2 label purpose is a DYI label: created to create creative creations. 


Being poor is not nice, is inhumane and it should be a crime, illegal and punishable at law. Yet, poverty is such a part of our society that we take it for a given. It is institutionalized and common place. Actually, being poor, for some, is so much a lot in life that many have resigned themselves to being poor. Adding to this resignation, is the fact that poverty can create a vicious cycle of persistent poverty. Indeed, poverty is so ingrained in the society that sociologists even have measurement for it. First class, second class and third class “poverty”.

Sadly, many people benefit from the existence of poverty as many great nations are built and structured with poverty as a main stay feature. Then again, some people are afraid that if the poor is no longer poor it might affect the current status quo. Others also find that when there are poor people around, they feel motivated because they can say they are better than “them”. Yes, for some the existence of the poor makes them feel adequate and fulfilled?  Some even believe that if there are no poor people the world would be in disarray?

So it begs questions: “Do we really want to see a change where poverty is discredited and everyone is living like “human beings?”


Ben Carson believed that Poverty is also a “state of mind”. 

Is poverty really a state of mind as suggested by Ben Carson, who believed that people with the wrong mind-set, will be poor. According to Ben, “you can give them everything in the world — they’ll work their way right back down to the bottom.” He added that helping people may not better their lives.

Interestingly, Mr. Carson then credited his mother for helping him focus on his education and rise out of poverty.  “If everybody had a mother like mine, nobody would be in poverty,” This aspect of Mr. Carson’s speech has not been underscored. WITHOUT ASSISTANCE HE MIGHT HAVE BEEN A BUM.

Then again, is it that the poor is a part of life and will always be with us as implied by Jesus Christ and as such it is fruitless to try and eradicate poverty? Matthew 26:11, The poor you will always have with you, but you will not always have Me. We must however hastily add that Jesus did suggest a fix for poverty when he advised his disciples  to “Sell your possessions and give to the poor” (Luke 12:33).

Unlike Mr. Carson, many people such as Nelson Mandela and Fidel Castro believed poverty was “created” and is real. Folks such as Marx and Lenin believed poverty is real and blamed Capitalism and market economies as the main contributor to poverty.


Everyone knows poverty. You are either in poverty or trying to keep out of poverty. However,  the United Nations definition: “Fundamentally, poverty is the inability of having choices and opportunities, a violation of human dignity. It means lack of basic capacity to participate effectively in society. It means not having enough to feed and clothe a family, not having a school or clinic to go to, not having the land on which to grow one’s food or a job to earn one’s living, not having access to credit. It means insecurity, powerlessness and exclusion of individuals, households and communities. It means susceptibility to violence, and it often implies living in marginal or fragile environments, without access to clean water or sanitation”.

Image result for castro quote on povertyThe causes of poverty have been cited to include the inability of poor households to invest in property and education; limited access to credit; production of more poverty via inherited poverty and discrimination.

War and violence due to politics, religion or commerce are also some of the primary causes of poverty. Unemployment also contributes. 

How could we leave out Colonialism and slavery. Emancipation in 1838 saw the Blacks having their feet unshackled but their minds fettered. After years of forced labour, Blacks were set free with only their brawn and brain as their sole worldly possessions. Contrast the lot of the Africans vs their brothers, Whites, Indians and Chinese who all came over as free men and are the owners of the main factors of production.


Image result for castro quote on poverty

Misanthropy is not a commonly used word but unfortunately its meaning is common among people, race,class and creed.  Having bad will towards fellow human beings is unmistakably and sadly prevalent in today’s society. Even the blind can see that with the level of knowledge, development and resource in the world there is no excuse for poverty. Yet poverty abound amidst much wealth.

Maybe the time has come for us to think about outlawing poverty. Poverty should become persona non grata. Government would put in the relevant structures, resources and policies to ensure that poverty is eradicated. Education and schools would be used to kill ignorance while tolerance, goodwill and understanding will be used to convert misanthropy into philanthropy.

Seriously, for just a moment, imagine if there was a law that made it illegal to be poor. Each person in poverty would be arrested along with the heads of government for the town or community in which the poor was found. In other words, if a person is found living in poverty, he or she would first be determined for fitness and if found fit then to the penitentiary at hard labour. The respective members of parliament or congress men would also be taken through the same process.  If the reason for the poverty is government oriented then the politician would be arrested.

Mark Zuckerberg
May 25, 2017. Mark Zuckerberg,  receives honorary degree from Harvard, his former university, 13 years after he famously dropped out to start Facebook. 

On a more palatable note, Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg is also concerned about curbing poverty but is calling for a universal basic income to boost personal potential and build economic growth. He is touting the idea of a universal basic income – where the government unconditionally pays all citizens a small amount of money to cover basic needs and to cushion them to try new things.”

Supporters of a universal basic income argue that people might decide to acquire more education or change their career, to make themselves more attractive to the labour market. Others might start a business. Finland and a few other countries are experimenting with the idea.

However, there is always the chance that it could be used as an excuse to work as little as possible and as such poverty should be outlawed.


One of the first implications of outlawing poverty is the need for a Paradigm shift in terms of our values and measurement of success. The usual “guns vs butter” economical decision will need revisiting and maybe empowerment could be the key motivator.

Full employment of human resources, and an educated and healthy nation supported by government could lead to the development of more innovation and technology. For example, Zuckerman admitted   “If I had to support my family growing up instead of having time to code, I wouldn’t be standing here today” (as a billionaire and owner of Facebook).

Of course there are some scary and unsettling implications for the outlawing of poverty. Just the thought of eliminating poverty by outlawing it, is a careless reckless idea conjured only by people smoking Champagne and drinking Havana cigars. There are no guarantees that crime and violence, diseases, and inhumane living conditions would be drastically reduced if poverty is outlawed.

Furthermore, being rich is motivational and who doesn’t want to be rich? Think of the displacement it could cause a few rich folks. (According to the 80/20 rule, 80% of the wealth of the world is owned by 20% of the population.) Wouldn’t this border on communism and authoritarian rule. Many will point out that it will even create a military police state which will deprive citizens of basic human rights and democratic freedom. Cuba is seen as an example.

Advocates of capitalism will let you know,that any attempt to interfere with the market structure will result in inefficiencies and bureaucracy. Of course, Cuba’s trump card would include the inequalities, inefficiencies and human rights violations that are traits and characteristic of capitalism and imperialism.


Ben Carson feels that poverty can be a state of mind and this is true. There are instances where the individual level of intrinsic or extrinsic motivation can help determine a life of poverty or wealth. Some misled folks also believe that some races are by characteristic lazy and not enterprising. Fortunately, we need not pay attention to such poppycock as the evidence shows that there are bums in all races. What is real is that poverty is an institution created by man and anything that man created can be destroyed. So far Apartheid and Slavery have been toppled and any effort to discredit and remove poverty should be welcomed.

Of course, outlawing poverty may see changes in the existing status quo and might require a paradigm shift. There will definitely be winners and losers to an extent but the glory will go towards humanity. There are no guarantees that a poverty free world will eliminate crime, violence and injustice but just imagine. Indeed, we may just be changing the types of crimes and ills but why stick to the evil we know  when we can venture into a new and exciting world.  Just imagine such nonsense. Poverty is illegal.


Clifton Neil is a university lecturer in marketing and a lover of history and literature. Contact – Twitter. @cliftongneil




Image result for serena williams  and alexis

For her Winter Solstice gift, December 22, 2016, Serena Williams,  the 22-time grand-slam winner announced on Reddit her intentions to wed Alexis Ohanian, the 33-year-old co-founder and executive chairman of Reddit, who is a White man.

Of course the internet began buzzing and tweeting with positive and negative sentiments. Some folks even argued whether Serena can continue representing real Black women while marrying a White man.  Serena qualified all responses by noting that “when she dates someone she never sees color as she dates who she has chemistry with”. She also noted that Alexis has treated her better than any Black man she had dated and we know Serena has dated a slew of Black men including rappers Drake and Common as well as former NFL linebacker Lamar Arrington and basketball star Amare Stoudemire. Who feels it knows it. Then again, who cares?

Without defending Serena’s interracial preference, we must be cognizant of the fact that more Black men marry White women than do Black women marry White men.  Truth to be told, there are great catches, oops, great prospects, in every race on earth. In Jamaica we say, ” every hoe has its stick a bush”, meaning that everything has its fit.

It does seem as if Love, beauty, care, protection and compassion are not skin or race restricted. Neither are bigotry, delinquency, ugliness and poor parent hood restricted to race, class or creed. Indeed, the only person incapable of love is either dead or severely mentally disturbed.


According to in 2014, 14% percent of Black men were married to non-Black women which is up from 11% in 2010. Only half (7%) of those non-Black women were White. Similarly, the Pew Research Center released a report finding that 25% of Black male newlyweds in 2013 married non-Black women compared to 12% of Black women who “married out”.  However Asian women and Native Americans still have higher rates of interracial marriage. Black women were the least likely to marry non-Black men at only 6% in 2014, and only 4/% were married to White men.

2014 Marriage Chart


It does seem as if most successful Black men are being stereo typed as prone to marrying White women based on the conspicuous behaviour of plenty rap stars, athletes and musicians choosing to date or marry interracially when they achieve fame. Fact is that the same is not true for the bulk of successful Black men. By analyzing census data, Toldson and Marks found that 83 percent of married black men who earned at least $100,000 annually got hitched to Black women. The same is the case for educated Black men of all incomes. Eighty-five percent of Black male college graduates married Black women. Generally, 88 percent of married Black men (no matter their income or educational background) have Black wives.

On a sexual note,, a study from Rutgers University in New Rochelle, NJ, has concluded that approximately 87 percent of American White women have had or fantasize about having sexual relations with African American males.  Interestingly enough, the same study says only 13% of white women said they would would marry and raise a family with a Black man.


Why are more people having favourable attitudes towards interracial marriage even if they would not do it  themselves? The major contributing factors would include legality, morality  and shift in attitude due to  change in values and the millennial kids now maturing.


The simply reason why more Blacks date and marry Whites is because it is now legal. Indeed, we are indebted to Richard and Mildred Loving, an interracial couple who were thrown in jail in Virginia for violating the state’s rules against multicultural marriages fifty years ago. In 1967, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled miscegenation laws—or laws preventing people of different races and ethnicities from getting married—unconstitutional. (By the way Loving is their real Please read this better than Mills & Boon real life love story at

Now, Decades later, naturally, interracial marriage is now the highest it has ever been in the United States, up 14 percent compared with what it was in 1967 when the courts ruled in favor of Richard and Mildred Loving.


Genesis 2 vs 24 suggests a “man shall leave his father and his mother, and be joined to his wife; and they shall become one flesh” but  (Deuteronomy 7:3–4did not encourage the inter marriage of the Israelite with other peoples.  However, the reason for this command was not due to skin color but rather religious. It seemed God felt that people of other races were worshippers of false gods and the Israelite would be led astray from God if they intermarried with idol worshippers. Self preservation?

More intense, Hitler and his followers will let you know that race should not mixed as some races are inferior and will water down the real “master” race. (The verdict is still out. Science has not shown racial supremacy and The Old Testament writers can’t be subpoenaed).

Attitude change to Black-White Marriage

Americans’ attitudes about interracial marriage have changed dramatically over the past 55 years, moving from the point in the late 1950s when disapproval was well over 90%, to the point today when approval is approaching 90%.

Approval of black-white marriage is higher among younger Americans especially the millennial kids (18 – 34), and lowest among those 65 and older.  Yes, the millennial generation has grown up and now they are parents. Their attitudes, behaviors and perceptions are different from that of their conservative elderly parents and fore parents. Colour and race taboo have been significantly downplayed by them and even replace d by diversity, liberalism and alternative lifestyles.

However, Census data indicated that black-white marriages in reality remain fairly rare — although they have increased from 167,000 in 1980 to 558,000 in 2010, they still represented less than 1% of all married couples.


Ebony plays with Ivory.

Stevie Wonder and Paul McCartney seem to believe that it takes ebony and ivory to make music on a piano. Well, music played on a piano uses two colour keys: black and white. The white keys are more than the black keys yet music require both colours. Although a poor analogy, it is possible for some people to make music and possible find love doing inter racial.


Fortunately or unfortunately, even the blind can see that since the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492 in the Caribbean and the Pilgrims on the Mayflower  in 1620 in the USA, Whites are “superior” to Blacks in status quo and power. The church, the school and the civic organizations all reinforced this false notion in an attempt to prolong the evils of slavery. In primary school we were subtly taught ” “If you are white, it is all right and if you are brown you may stick around but if you are black you better get to the back”. Peter Tosh defiantly added  “or get on the attack”.

Needless to say, apart from melanin and its accompanying nuances, Whites are the same as Blacks. They all have two eyes, ears, hands and feet. They both go to the bathroom, have sex, get kids, and are treated unfairly by narcissistic and chauvinistic males and females. Beauty abounds in all races and for proof, the World Beauty Pageant winners have not been restricted to Black and White women.


Image result for michael jackson evolve pictures

Folks usually joke that the USA is such a land of opportunity that it can afford even a poor Black boy to grow up to be a rich White woman. Rudely, Micheal Jackson was used as the ideal example of this. However, many Black women in the USA and the Caribbean have also fallen victims to this “plastic” version of success and beauty. Indeed, Black women are spending millions of dollars each year to look WHITE and “enhance their beauty”. Many have processed their hair to get it straight as if they are ashamed of their so called kinky hair. Some have gone further by bleaching their skins to look white as well.

Understandably, we can be sympathetic with these black brothers and sisters who strive to be “white” and denied their charcoal skin. After all, as mentioned, for centuries Blacks have suffered the indignity of physical rape, robbing, kidnapping and killing mainly by the hands of Europeans under Slavery. They have been stripped not only of their garbs but also of their soul and mind and identity. Despite Emancipation in 1838 in the Caribbean and 1864 in the USA, the black psyche has been warped so badly that many Blacks have found it easier to look and behave like their former white slave owners than to struggle to be free mentally. There is little comfort in reminding them that the ancient Greeks also had slaves who were not Negroes but white men who had been taken captive in war.

A friend of mine sarcastically call these type of Blacks, “Oreo cookies” or “roasted breadfruit”: Dark skin on the outside but white beneath. His claim is that if a Black brother wants a Black sister, he has little choice as the sisters look like White women. He jokingly asked, “What does it benefit the black brother to choose a “black” white woman over a white woman. Is it better to have a real woman who is white than a confused woman who is black?” Quite a dilemma.

However, thanks to Marcus Garvey (1887 – 1940), his rally call for Black consciousness has not fallen on deaf ears and there are a few brothers and sisters have developed a sense of black pride that is creating a glimmer of hope.

Image result for marcus garvey on intelligence in different races

An excerpt from Albert Einstein’s Essay on Racial Bias supports Marcus Garvey’s cry for Blacks to “emancipate ourselves from mental slavery as none but ourselves can free our minds” in his 1946 essay on racial bias against the Blacks in USA.

“A large part of our attitude toward things is conditioned by opinions and emotions which we unconsciously absorb as children from our environment. In other words, it is tradition — besides inherited aptitudes and qualities — which makes us what we are. We but rarely reflect how relatively small as compared with the powerful influence of tradition is the influence of our conscious thought upon our conduct and convictions.
“It would be foolish to despise tradition. But with our growing self-consciousness and increasing intelligence we must begin to control tradition and assume a critical attitude toward it, if human relations are ever to change for the better. We must try to recognize what in our accepted tradition is damaging to our fate and dignity — and shape our lives accordingly.
“I believe that whoever tries to think things through honestly will soon recognize how unworthy and even fatal is the traditional bias against Negroes.
“What, however, can the man of good will do to combat this deeply rooted prejudice? He must have the courage to set an example by word and deed, and must watch lest his children become influenced by this racial bias”.


I am still not sure if inter racial marriage is cool especially for the children of the union who find themselves mid stream, neither black nor white.  Yet, today’s society is wreaking such havoc on the institution of marriage that if a man or woman chooses to marry he or she should be commended because the current level of liberalism, alternative lifestyles and patterns of broken marriages can easily deter people from marrying.

The choice of to whom to marry should be each person’s prerogative since value and love lie in the eyes of the beholder. At the end of the day what is important is the extent to which the brotherhood of man can be pursued and attained. Of course, malicious self interest is misguided and Haile Selassie, Emperor of Ethiopia, begged us to ditch racism, class, and bigotry and get hitched with understanding, tolerance and  goodwill, In short, philanthropy vs misanthropy. Bob Marley put Selassie’s words of wisdom to music and came up with the thought provoking reggae hit, “War”. Then again, who cares.

Clifton Neil is a university lecturer in marketing and a lover of history and literature. Contact – Twitter. @cliftongneil




The Sun will “die” at midnight on December 21, but don’t panic, it will “rebirth” on midnight December 24. This occurs at the beginning of Winter every year for the past 4.6 billion years. It is called the Winter Solstice, “sun stood still”, and is considered the shortest day in the year in terms of hours of sunlight. It is a three-day period when the hours of daylight are at its shortest and the hours of night (darkness) are at its longest. Noticeably, the sun progressively sets earlier each evening after June 22 (The Summer Solstice – longest hours of sunlight) and night fall comes the earliest on December 21. Hence daylight savings time put our clock one hour back to make up for the shorter hours of day light.


Needless to say, the Sun is vital to our life here on earth and is one of the most important star in our world. It is the nearest star to Earth and is believed to be formed 4.6 billion years ago.  It is the most important source of energy for life on Earth and its diameter is about 109 times that of Earth, with mass about 330,000 times that of Earth. The sun accounts for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System and is so large that about 1,300,000 planet Earths can fit inside of it. Awesome. WOW. (Worthy of Worshipping?)


Well, our ancestors did just that more than 9000 years ago and it is still being done today. The ancients selected December 21, the Winter Solstice as the ideal time to invoke the sun. Maybe if you were living in the north pole and had long, dark harsh winters to deal with you might want to invoke the sun too.

In the solar myth, the death of the “old sun” occurs as the length of daylight decreases and bImage result for invictus sol unconquerable sunecomes its lowest at the Winter Solstice which begins on the midnight of December 21 (early morning December 22) and ends on Midnight December 24 (early morning December 25). The sun stop moving south on December 22, it is then at its lowest point in the Northern Hemisphere, residing in the vicinity of the Southern Cross. It stays at this lowest point for three days (December 22, 23, 24 appearing to not moving south or north and was considered “dead”

It “returned to life” at midnight on December 24/ early morning December 25, when it begins its northern journey again and the hours of sunlight start to lengthen. Therefore, the ancient said that the SUN was born on December 25. As a result, mistletoes, holly, wreaths, cakes, gifts, greeting cards and feasts were done to honour Sol or Mithra or Saturnalia as the case may be.

Interestingly, on December 24, Sirius (star in the east and brightest star in the night sky) aligns with the three brightest Orion belt stars called the Three Kings, (Alnitak, Alnilam and Mintaka) and on December 25, these all point to the location where the sun will rise on earth that day. In essence, the three kings follow the star in the east to find the sunrise (birth of the sun).

Image result for unconquerable sunSolar deities and Sun worship can be found throughout most of recorded history in various forms, including the Egyptian Ra, Mithra in Persia, Apollo the Romans, Isis the Hindu Surya, the Japanes Amaterasu, the GermanicSol, and the Aztec Tonatiuh, and controversially, more recent, Jesus in “Christianity”.


As a Baptist, I grew up with the belief that December 25 is the birthdate of Jesus Christ and as such we worship and acknowledge it as Christmas. Indeed, Christmas is big— very big. The entire Island of Jamaica comes to a virtual standstill. Schools and colleges are closed; businesses shut down to give their employees time off; many families plan trips and get-togethers; Church attendance increase; and gifts are given by even those who were scrooge all year long. Maybe you recall, the Christmas Carol that even erroneously say “ Long time ago in Bethlehem, so the Holy Bible said, Mary’s boy child Jesus Christ, was born on Christmas Day”
However, recall all these activities were already being done in Rome, Babylon, Persia, Greece, and Egypt to acknowledge and worship the birth day of Sol Invicta  (the Unconquered Sun) up to 4000 years before Jesus Christ was born. It then begs the question, whose birthday are we celebrating on December 25? Does Jesus the SON share the birthday with the SUN?


There is no definitive proof of Jesus’s birthdate but there are clues about when he was or wasn’t born.

First, we know that shepherds were in the fields at night watching their flocks at the time of Jesus’ birth (Luke 2:7-8). According to Celebrations: The Complete Book of American Holidays , Luke’s account “suggests that Jesus may have been born in summer or early fall. Since December is cold and rainy in Judea, it is likely the shepherds would have sought shelter for their flocks at night”.

Second, Jesus’ parents came to Bethlehem to register in a Roman census (Luke 2:1-4). Such censuses were not taken in winter, when temperatures often dropped below freezing and roads were in poor condition and would be self-defeating.

Also, the conception and birth of John the Baptist gives an idea since Elizabeth (John’s mother) was in her sixth month of pregnancy when Jesus was conceived (Luke 1:24-36). From this we can determine the approximate time of year Jesus was born if we know when John was born. John’s father, Zacharias, was a priest serving in the Jerusalem temple during the course of Abijah (Luke 1:5). Historical calculations indicate this course of service corresponded to June 13-19 in that year ( The Companion Bible , 1974, Appendix 179, p. 200).

It was during this time of temple service that Zacharias learned that he and his wife, Elizabeth, would have a child (Luke 1:8-13). After he completed his service and traveled home, Elizabeth conceived (Luke 1:23-24). Assuming John’s conception took place near the end of June, adding nine months brings us to the end of March as the most likely time for John’s birth. Adding another six months (the difference in ages between John and Jesus (Luke 1:35-36)) brings us to the end of September as the likely time of Jesus’ birth.


According to scriptures, Jesus Christ was whipped, spat upon, publicly dishonored then killed by the Church (Caiaphas the high priest) and the State (Pilate the Roman governor). After JesImage result for invictus sol unconquerable sunus’s death, his followers had to go “underground” as they too were meeting the same or worse fate than Christ. These “Followers of Christ” (not Christians as Christianity wasn’t start as yet) were stripped and flogged with whips, stoned to death, and persecuted.

Yet, despite the persecution, the “Followers of Jesus” went underground and their church started to flourish and soon became a major concern to the Roman government. They were blamed for spreading “mischief” that Jesus Christ was king and lord, and was crucified to save our souls. Followers of Christ were also accused of destabilizing the economy and threatening civil war.

Constantine I. R. 306-337. Constantine was the 1st Christian emperor. Constantine decided to establish a new Eastern capital representing the integration of the east into the Roman Empire as a whole. He settled on the Greek city of Byzantium, located in strategic spot. The residents spontaneously decided to rename the city Constantinople. Relics of the True Cross & the Rod of Moses protected the city. The Church of the Holy Apostles was built over a temple to Aphrodite. It was the “New…
Constantine I.R. 306 -337. The first Christian emperor.

To stop the possibility of civil war and at the same time keep the existing pagan occult worships, Constantine, in AD 326 at the Council of Nicaea, “married” Christ like sentiments (name and life story) with that of Rome’s mysticism and called it Christianity. This new “Christianity” became the official religion of Rome and the SUN was replaced by the SON with Isis and Osiris became Mary and Jesus. December 25 was then decreed as Jesus birthday with the Spring Equinox full moon in March/April designate as his death day. In short, today’s Christianity is an unholy marriage of Roman Idolatry and Christ sentiments designed by Constantine to maintain religious and political if not economical order and harmony in the empire.


Sol Invictus (Unconquered Sun) is a very important star in our solar system without a doubt. As the main source of energy, we can understand the need to recognize it and maybe even glorify its daily presence in our lives. Many people deliberately and some unwittingly  worship and glorify the SUN between December 21 – 25 to show appreciation. Unfortunately Jehovah is a very jealous god and considered Sun worship as an abomination 4000 years prior to the birth of Christ.

It now begs the question:  is the Son of God the same as the Sun of God? Is it now okay to use the same day to celebrate our Messiah’s Birth and the Sun’s birth bearing in mind the Scriptures do not sanction birthday celebration of any kind and Christ wasn’t born in December in any event?

According to a friend of mine, “December 25 is the most wonderful time of the year.  It’s okay if we buy gifts and put up Christmas Trees. Furthermore, the Lord will understand that “disobeying” and having festivities on December 25 is not in honour of the SUN, as pagans do, but is for his SON Jesus which is the reason for the season”. I smiled as I reminded myself that December 25 is the “silly season”.




Some years ago, a very good female friend of mine tried to convince me that the creation story, as we know it, was fabricated. She claimed that in the beginning God had actually created woman before man but because man was expected to be proud, arrogant, controlling and maybe narcissistic, it was thought prudent to tell him that he was created first. My friend also noted that God told Eve that this idea that male was created before female was to be a secret between God and Eve, woman to woman.

Stop a minute. Hold it right there! Let’s absorb this thought. In the beginning, not only was woman created before man but God was also a woman. A feminine god?  Now, every good Christian knows that it is heretical, blasphemous, insane, presumptuous, and unpardonable to imagine God with any other gender but male.  Fortunately, this is the 21st century so instead of burning my friend at the stakes, we simple write off  her views as being feminist and poppycock. In defence, she was however quick to point out that the same merit for a masculine god is just as poppycock as the idea of a feminine god.

Hmmmm. Thinking. Thinking. Not thinking. Hold the horses. The idea of a gender for God apart from masculine was very difficult for me as I grew up as a Baptist. Indeed, as a child I could recite the 23rd Psalm, “The Lord is my shepherd, I shall not want. He leadeth me…” as well as the Lord’s prayer as stated by Jesus Christ in Matthew 6 vs 9: “Our Father who art in heaven, hallowed be thy name……”

Now, every good Baptist “knows” that Jesus spoke with “authority” and on behalf of “God” so if Jesus say God is father, then God is father. Argument done. Male sexism has won.

Suffice to say, it is a beautiful comforting idea having a father-god who is both caring and nurturing while being protective and strong. Maybe if you take away this belief of a father- god from me, I might become distraught. Yeah, change can make the comforted become uncomfortable and the uncomfortable become comforted. It is a real dilemma: childlike simplicity vs adult complexity.

Seriously now,  does it matter if the creator is male or female? Do we have to get God involved in the battle of the sexes. The simple answer is a profound yes, it matters profoundly: a male god will create a male world and a male world is a dangerous world for both males and females. Testosterone is a mighty thing.

Most likely if you are a woman you might have suffered immensely from this seemingly inequity, sexist and chauvinistic approach to running society, countries, villages and families where the male gets preference.Image result for male or female god

For example, despite the fact that a woman spends nine months nurturing the fetus until birth, the child upon birth, whether it be a male or female, is given the father’s surname. This is “naturally” so even if the father is a bum. Similarly, birthright and even royalty are passed on with first choice to the male even if he is the last born in the family of otherwise all girls. In some cases, women cannot become heads of church, state, organizations or even the home, even if the male is a bum.

Have you ever wondered what the world would be like if it was not a patriarchal, male dominated world? Have you ever imagined a world where women and men are equals with same pay and recognition for same type jobs? Have you ever wondered what it would be like without glass ceilings where equal opportunities for advancement in the corporate world exist?

These are real and troubling thoughts but most people, including I, would normally avoid them, pointing them out as revolutionary in nature or simply as idle and careless. Similarly, we would write off as fantasy or nonsensical to imagine what it would be like if god was not masculine. Poppycock? Definitely not. Dreams? Maybe. After All, some religions already view the creator of the earth as being feminine and have goddesses such as Isis, Ishtar, Venus etc.


Even before the Old Testament times, virtually every culture in the entire world was patriarchal in structure. The real justification for this tendency and status of history depends on the religion and the political constructs. In our Judaeo -Christian environment, the justification is found in the Genesis story, especially Genesis 1 vs 26 – 27.

“And God said, let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. So god created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them”.

Let us naively look at this part of the creation story. First thing we noticed is that God doesn’t seem to be alone when he was making man. “Let US make man in OUR image and likeness”. This begs the questions: who are us and ours? Are they plural, discrete and separate in nature? Do they represent male and or female gender? (This is a blong in itself)

The seImage result for male or female godcond thing of note is “So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them”. Of interest here is that, for the first time, God is now HIS and HE, which is a masculine and singular entity. Why is this assumption? (This is a blong in itself but see below)..

The next thing to note is that man was made in God’s image and likeness. Does this mean physical features (hands, head, eyes, mouth and brain) or is it image in terms of intellectual creative traits?

Physical features such as limbs, one head, two eyes, one mouth and a brain are not unique or special to man as most living things, including monkeys which were made before man, have them. If physical features were in God’s image then monkeys would have first claim to being in God’s image as they were made before man. Then again, even the monkey would not have first claim as fish and birds all have one head, two eyes, one mouth and a brain and they were made before monkeys and would also be in God’s image if it was a physical thing..

Maybe a more noble and fitting idea of God’s image would be man’s ability to think, create and make moral decisions. This high level of intelligence is what separates man from other creatures. Intellect vs intuition.

The final thing to note in that verse is that “in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them”. This could be construed that male and female are made in God’s image (intellectual) and that man or mankind refers to both man and woman rather than as simply a male human.

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Gen. 1 vs 1 – 3 gives us the nature of God before and at the beginning.  “In the beginning, God created the heaven and the earth. And the earth was without form, and void: and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. And God said let there be light: and there was light”.

Common sense, although uncommon, suggests that before creation, the Creator did exist but time, space and matter did not exist.  It follows that the Creator is spiritual in nature and does not need or possess any form of physical human characteristic to exist. Indeed, try and imagine a god that has feet, hands and a mouth to feed trying to live in nothing:  an earth without form, and void. 

Image result for god is spiritJob 33:4 “The Holy Spirit is God the creator” is blaring and it is strongly supported by John 4:24, “God is spirit, and his worshipers must worship in spirit and in truth.” Of course, it is hard to worship a spirit or creator one cannot 
see and many religions have created physical gods and or use  figurative language to assign human characteristics to God.

This Anthropomorphism, simply putting human characteristic to a non-human element, can be accommodating as it allows us to personalize our relationship with an inanimate  or invisible thing. It can however result in a level of enslavement and dogma if the figurative idea is repeatedly taught and justified as literal and is used to control mankind activities. After-all, even lies if told repeatedly become “truth”.

Controversial philosophers such as Engel and Marx even believed that “In the beginning man created god in his own image and likeness”. They believed that man created god as a male and used the precept to develop a patriarchal society which put males as superior over females, family, private property and the state. This male dominated status quo is today’s product of a dangerous world littered with war, poverty and injustice.

Of course there is no guarantee that the notion of a feminine-god would provide a peaceful and poverty free world. Women can be very temperamental with dispositions that at times make men look like saints. The popular saying “There is no fury in hell like that of a woman scorned” was coined because of this awareness.  

Albert Einstein sums up the god and gender issue neatly in the following excerpts from his writings circa 1941:

“During the youthful period of mankind’s spiritual evolution human fantasy created gods in man’s own image, who, by the operations of their will were supposed to determine, or at any rate to influence, the phenomenal world. Man sought to alter the disposition of these gods in his own favour by means of magic and prayer. The idea of God in the religionImage result for in the beginning man created god in his own images taught at present is a sublimation of that old concept of the gods. Its anthropomorphic character is shown, for instance, by the fact that men appeal to the Divine Being in prayers and plead for the fulfillment of their wishes.
Nobody, certainly, will deny that the idea of the existence of an omnipotent, just, and omni beneficent personal God is able to accord man solace, help, and guidance; also, by virtue of its simplicity it is accessible to the most undeveloped mind. But, on the other hand, there are decisive weaknesses attached to this idea in itself, which have been painfully felt since the beginning of history”.

Einstein continued, “God is a mystery. But a comprehensible mystery. I have nothing but awe when I observe the laws of nature. There are not laws without a lawgiver, but how does this lawgiver look? Certainly not like a man magnified.” He added with a smile, “some centuries ago I would have been burned or hanged. Nonetheless, I would have been in good company.”

Chances are I would be in Einstein’s company although today they don’t burn you at the stakes or hang you at the gallows, they simply call you crazy.  Nonetheless, crazy or not, an omnipotent, omnipresent and omniscience creator would not need a physical form much less gender and testosterone to exist. Indeed, a   male god concept and patriarchal society have resulted in the creation of a dangerous world filled with wars, poverty   and the exploitation of women and other less fortunate creatures.  On the other hand, a female god may not do much better as estrogen would affect her behaviour.

Maybe we should not “get into God’s business” by including it in the battle of the sexes but the reality is that if we accept the notion of a male god, not only are we in God’s business but we are putting God on the side of males. Indeed, the battle of the sexes  for God is one war if won by either side will be fatal to society. We could play it safe and provide for our childlike craving for a fatherly figure and yearning for a motherly figure by having a god with both genders. However, throwing safety to the winds and for the fun of it, we could envision a gender-less god where the battle of sexes doesn’t arise and happiness lies in bringing out the “Good, the True, and the Beautiful in humanity itself”, in spite of and despite your gender.




I was so relieved when Hurricane Matthew went west and avoided Jamaica on Monday October 3, 2016. It spared us the grief, loss of life and damages that a hurricane can do. However, I was saddened when I saw what Hurricane Matthew did to Haiti, our neighbor. So imagine my chagrin when I noticed many Jamaicans being annoyed that they had spent thousands of dollars preparing for a hurricane that didn’t come. The Haitians, I am sure, would have been more thankful and appreciative than us if the hurricane had slipped them by.

Adding injury to insult, these same ungrateful Jamaicans and misguided folks also blamed Haiti’s calamity and poverty on dubious things such as voodoo practices. Yet, the truth is that although Jamaica was the star in the crown of England during the heyday of sugar and slavery in the Caribbean, according to Adam Smith in 1776, Saint Domingue (Haiti) was “the most important of the sugar colonies of the West Indies.” Beating out even its neighbour, Santo Domingo.

It does beg the question though: what went wrong? Why is Haiti so impoverished, disease ridden, and suffering so much? It seems that even God and man is against them. Nature in the form of earthquakes, floods and wind and man as Nations have plundered, rape, robbed, killed and kidnapped them repeatedly. This may justify ignorant onlookers ludicrously believing that Haiti’s poverty and lack of development are because god is against Haiti.

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HISPANIOLA: One island 2 countries. Haiti, formerly St. Domingue and Dominican Republic formerly Santo Domingo.

The fact is that Haiti is suffering because its people are Black and it became a nation of free blacks and coloured people in 1804 at a time when blacks in the west were seen as slaves or “people of a lesser god”.  Using bullets instead of ballots, it defeated France’s army and this embarrassment to the white psyche of Napoleon Bonaparte and France in 1803, is not easily forgiven, and could not go unpunished, not by god but by man. Yes, their calamity is for being free blacks.


Before the Europeans came to the Americas, the Caribbean were striving economies with great peoples such as the Incas, Mayas, Aztecs, Arawaks and Tainos. December 1492, Christopher Columbus sponsored by Spain landed on an island which he called La Isla Española, or the “The Spanish Island,” . The name was eventually Anglicized to Hispaniola. The original Taino inhabitants called  the island Quisqueya (or Kiskeya), which means “mother of the earth”.  It was also called “Ayti,” (Haiti) meaning “mountainous land.”

The Spaniards mistreated the indigenous  Taino population, pillaging their villages, seizing their women and committing acts of violence. By 1514, the killing and maiming of the Taino were so widespread that a priest Bartolome de las Casas, who was sympathetic  and  shocked by the treatment of “this most lovable and tractable people,” unwittingly suggested  that Africans were better made for enslavement. Here began the enslavement of Africans in the west.

Spain halfheartedly continued its rule of the Island but France and Britain also had expansionist ideas and in the early 1600s, the first French settlers began to occupy western Hispaniola as the Spaniards stuck to the eastern part. The three nations battled each other for control of Hispaniola.


September 1697, with the Treaty of Ryswick, Spain recognized France’s presence on Hispaniola and ceded the western third of the island. The French called their new territory Saint Domingue and the Spanish called theirs Santo Domingo. In essence, the island of Hispaniola now became two countries on one island.Saint-Domingue, known as the “Pearl of the Antilles,” became France’s most lucrative colony, holding world production records for sugar and coffee by the end of the 18th century. Santo Domingo, on the other hand was neglected by the Spaniards.

Large-scale and labor-intensive sugar production necessitated large labor force, and the colonists begin importing more slaves from Africa into St. Domingue. According to a study by the American Library of Congress, by the end of the 18th century, there were about 40,000 white landowners, 25,000 black or interracial freedmen and 60,000 slaves in the Spanish colony (Santo Domingo) compared with approximately 30,000 whites, 27,000 freedmen, and at least 500,000 black slaves in its French counterpart (St. Domingue).

This outnumbering of Blacks to whites by more than 10 – 1 had a profound effect on the colony of St.  Domingue. The Free blacks and many mullattoes acquired plantations, and according to an 18th century French Communiqué:

“These men are beginning to fill the colony and it is of the greatest perversion to see them, their numbers continually increasing amongst the whites, with fortunes often greater than those of the whites . . . Their strict frugality prompting them to place their profits in the bank every year, they accumulate huge capital sums and become arrogant because they are rich, and their arrogance increases in proportion to their wealth. In many districts the best land is owned by the half-castes. . . These coloreds imitate the style of the whites and try to wipe out all memory of their original state”
— Colonial administrators writing to the Ministry of the Marine


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The 1791 Haitian Revolution secured Black independence and freedom in the former French colony and sounded the death knell for the European slave trade, in 1838.

Despite and maybe because of the increase in the wealth and importance of Free Blacks and Mullattoes, the French settlers  mistreated the Blacks and in 1757 François Makandal, a maroon leader, conspired to poison all the whites, including other slaves who couldn’t be trusted, in a plot intended to spread to “all corners of the colony.” This revolt though suppressed, officially started the Haitian Revolution. Indeed, “Maroons who were fugitive slaves were crucial to the fight for Haiti’s independence.

The French administrators responded by fighting fire with fire and in May 1771, Louis XV, the monarch of France, set new restrictions which elaborated on the Code Noir of 1685 and mulattoes found that they were stripped of many of their freedoms and privileges in the colony.

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During this period, Dutty Boukman (Boukman Dutty) who was an African man, enslaved in Haiti, was one of the most visible early leaders of the  Haitian Revolution. It is believed Dutty Boukman was a self-educated slave born on the island of Jamaica. He was later sold by his British master to a French plantation owner after he attempted to teach other Jamaican slaves to read.  His large size, warrior-like appearance, and fearsome temper made him an effective leader and helped spark the Haitian Revolution.

According to some contemporary accounts, on or about 14 August 1791 Boukman presided over a ceremony at the Bois Caiman in the role of houngan (priest) and Cecile Fatiman (priestess) prophesied of an upcoming resistance movement and revolt that would free the slaves of St. Domingue. Boukman was killed by the French in November 1791, just a few months after the beginning of the revolt and his head publicly displayed in an attempt to dispel the aura of invincibility that Boukman had cultivated.

Toussaint L’ouverture.

General Toussaint Louverture, the Blackman that embarrassed Napoleon

If one of the most dangerous things in the world is an educated man, imagine an educated Free Black man. In 1791, such a Free Black man by the name of Toussaint L’ouverture, inspired by events of the American Revolution of 1776 came to power.The American Declaration stated “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness”.

While Toussaint was fighting for Independence in St. Domingue, the French Revolution (1789 until 1799) began and far-reaching social and political upheaval took place in France. The Revolution overthrew the French monarchy, established a republic and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon that rapidly brought many of its principles to Western Europe and beyond. You can imagine the inspiration these developments were giving to Toussaint and the Blacks: ” Liberty, equality and fraternity”

Although L’Ouverture and his successor, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, succeeded in re-establishing order and renewing the economy of Saint Domingue, which had been badly devastated, the new leader in France, Napoleon Bonaparte, could not accept having France’s richest colony governed by a Black man. Succumbing to the complaints of former colonists who had lost their plantations in the colony, a large expedition was mounted to conquer the Blacks and re-establish slavery. Led by Napoleon’s brother-in-law, General Leclerc, the expedition turned into a disaster and napoleon suffered his Caribbean Waterloo.

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Napoleon Bonaparte met his first “waterloo” at St. Domingue when he encountered Toussaint in 1802.

The newly independent United States under President Thomas Jefferson reassured the French (new independent state) that he opposed independence in Saint-Domingue and pledged to support Napoleon’s agenda. France still lost the war and in April 1803, The Louisiana Purchase Treaty is signed and Napoleon ceded its North American territory to the United States and withdrew from the western hemisphere.

Toussaint Louverture successfully defeated the French but was tricked and deported to France where he died in jail in 1802. As he was being transferred to France, he famously warned his captors that the rebels would not repeat his mistake:  In overthrowing me you have cut down in Saint Domingue only the trunk of the tree of liberty; it will spring up again from the roots, for they are numerous and they are deep.


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The evolution of Haiti’s flag since independence in 1804. Dessalines had ripped out the white from the French flag.  Seems the white colour got back in, subtly.

Indeed, on January 1, 1804, Dessalines proclaimed Haiti’s independence, signaling the formation of the world’s first black republic and becoming the first independent nation in the Caribbean, and the second democracy in the western hemisphere. Dessalines created the new republic’s flag by simply ripping out the white fabric from the French tricolor of red, white and blue, with the remaining red and blue representing the unity of blacks and mulattoes

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French Flag

against the whites.

He published a Declaration of Independence, signed by himself and Henry Christophe, and the colony “Saint-Domingue” is abolished forever. The original Taino name of Hayti “land of mountains,” is officially restored.

The independent Republic of Haiti that eventually emerged in 1804 was never an equal among the fraternity or brotherhood of Western nations. French troops remained in the eastern part of Hispaniola (Santo Domingo) and France actively lobbied England, Spain and the United States to isolate and ostracized the fledgling nation politically and economically. France emphasized that Haiti was a threat to the countries’ plantation system and slaveholders. The global community shunned Haiti, and boycotted its merchants which is a major contributing factor to Haiti’s later impoverishment.

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Great heroes of Haiti whose efforts taught us that real freedom can only exist when both the captors and the captives are free

To make a bad matter worse, France, the spurned former colonial ruler, fumed at its losses and in 1825, crippled by an international embargo with a French flotilla of war ships threatening invasion, Haiti was compelled to pay a king’s ransom or “independence debt” of 150 million gold francs — estimated to be ten times the country’s annual revenues. Haiti, in effect, was forced to pay reparations for its freedom and to compensate French settlers and slaveowners for their lost plantation lands and slaves. Although the indemnity was later reduced to 90m gold coins, the debt crippled the Caribbean nation, which did not finish paying it off to French and American banks until 1947.  It further set the stage for many decades of Haitian economic misery and underdevelopment and becoming one of the poorest nations in the Western hemisphere

“We Haitians know that a big reason why we are suffering today is because we were forced to pay France for our freedom. If we were not punished for our independence long ago, we would have had a better time,” water seller Jean-Marc Bouchet said on a dusty, unpaved street in Port-au-Prince. (

Whilst this is true, the revolutionary wars also contributed to the country’s demise as it had destroyed nearly all of  Haiti’s colonial infrastructure and production capabilities. Noticeably too, the big estates were divided among the population and soon, almost every Haitian owned some land but hardly anyone could live from it since the allotments were too small and the new owners struggled to agree on a shared management of the land.

The problem was compounded by Haiti’s ethnically diverse population. “The slaves came from over a hundred different ethnic groups and originally had nothing to do with each other”.

The 20th century ushered in an era of American occupation from 1915 to 1934 and totalitarian regimes under the Duvaliers from 1957 to 1987. After decades of political suppression, Haiti had new democratic elections and in 1991 President Jean-Bertrand Aristide took office and was ousted just months later, reinstated and ousted again. In 2003, Haiti became the world’s first former colony to demand reparations (in the form of debt restitution) from a former colonial power. President Jean-Bertrand Aristide’s government conservatively calculated the value of the restitution due at some $21.7 billion. Although in 2001, the French parliament had unanimously approved a law recognizing the slave trade as a crime against humanity, France responded to Haiti’s petition with fury. It angrily rejected the lawsuit and joined with Washington in brazenly fomenting a coup d’état against Aristide, who was ousted on Feb. 29, 2004.


In 1795, in the Treaty of Basilea, Spain had ceded the Spanish colony of Santo Domingo to France and as such both Western and Eastern Hispaniola were under French Rule. After its losses to Haiti (Saint Domingue) in 1804, the French in 1809 returned it to Royal Spanish rule. The Spaniards not only tried to re-establish slavery in Santo Domingo, but many of them also mounted raiding expeditions into Haiti to capture Blacks and enslave them as well. In 1822, fearful the French would mount another expedition from Spanish Santo Domingo to re-establish slavery, as they had threatened to do; Haiti’s President Jean-Pierre Boyer sent an army that invaded and took over Santo Domingo; abolished slavery and incorporated it into the Republic of Haiti.

For the next 22 years the whole island of Hispaniola was unified under Haitian control. Due to their loss of political and economic control, the former Spanish ruling class deeply resented the occupation by these former slaves. Dominicans call the period “The Haitian Occupation”,

Religious and cultural life also suffered under the Haitian occupation. The Haitians, associated the Roman Catholic Church with the French colonists who had so cruelly exploited and abused them before independence, confiscated all church property in the east, deported all foreign clergy, and severed the ties of the remaining clergy to the Vatican. For Dominicans, who were much more strongly Roman Catholic, such actions seemed insulting.

As a result, during the late 1830s, an underground resistance group, La Trinitaria, was organized under the leadership of Juan Pablo Duarte in Santo Domingo. After multiple attacks on the Haitian army, and because of internal discord among the Haitians, the Haitians eventually retreated. On February 27, 1844, the eastern two-thirds of Hispaniola was officially declared independent and the name República Dominicana (Dominican Republic) was adopted.

Strife between (as well as within) Haiti and Santo Domingo was constant. While both countries struggled with democracy, economically they began to diverge and the two countries’ fortunes got reversed. Haiti which was once the Pearl of the Antilles was boycotted, burdened by heavy reparation payments and becoming impoverished while the  lighter-skinned Dominicans started to look down on the darker-skinned Haitians  as Dominica’s economy prosper as the world embraced them.

Haiti’s challenges and grief despite Acts of God (hurricanes, floods, earthquakes) and Acts of Man (deforestation and cholera), stem not from voodoo but from the fact that they are Africans who “rudely” changed their lots in life and dare to be free in 1803. So as we criticize Haiti, let’s remember that, fortunately or unfortunately, when Haiti got its independence in 1803, and took a road to being hungry yet free, we in Jamaica were slaves, well fed but chained and was a colony.

A POEM FOR HAITI – Clifton “NOTCLIF” Neil (Written on Oct. 16, 2016 @ Tuff Gong, Jamaica while waiting  for my daughter rehearsing for a concert)

NOTCLIF hanging out at Tuff Gong Studios, Jamaica, Oct 16, 2016

As you all belittle the impoverished island Haiti

Be sure to know you making their burden much more weighty.

Remember that there were times when they were free

And we were slaves, well fed but living in a colony.

As you all undermine the first free black nation in the west

Be sure to know they deserve to be put among the best,

Remember that nations and nature have treated them merciless

And as their cries pierce your hearts, don’t be void of tenderness.

As you all doomed Haiti  and claimed they are living in sin

Be sure to know their only wrong was having too many blacks within.

Remember if their people were brown or white, many would join in

But being all Black is their curse and also their blessing.


NOTCLIF is an avid reader of Caribbean History and a Marketing Lecturer at a university. Contact: Website