IS THE EARTH FLAT OR A SPHERE? IT KEEPS MOVING.

FLAT BELIEFS OR ROUND SCOPE


Christopher Columbus, knowing the Earth is round,                                                            sailed from Spain westward and guess what he found.                                                         New places that he thought was the Asian mainland,                                                                   and the discoveries led to a new marauding band.

Copernicus, Bruno, Galilei, and Newton                                                                                       all have something in common:                                                                                                 they dare to say the earth moved and is a sphere                                                                   end up life not spared or living in fear.
C. Neil

My little poem above was written to set the stage for a meandering review or swipe at how belief in a round earth that moves can lead to discoveries and new exploration (Columbus) but can also lead to persecution and death (Bruno) or a twist of fate from heretic to hero (Galileo).

Indeed, the Galileo melodrama touches a very important point. What is Truth? Yesterday’s fallacy can be today’s fact and today’s fact may be tomorrow’s fiction. Yeah, history is not necessarily fair in its representation of truth as it is invariably written from the perspective of the victor and not the victim. Regrettably, many times the suppressed victim’s view is the right view as will see in Galileo’s case.

In the 21st century, fortunately or unfortunately, kids are now taught in kindergarten that the earth is spherical, does move but is fixed in its plane, orbits around the sun and doesn’t move under their feet because of gravity.

Of course in the 21 st century, there are also many folks who believe that such teaching is nonsense. This is understandable as most major ancient religions from Mesopotamia to Egypt to the Greeks and to the Hebrews were built on a perception of a flat fixed earth that is at the centre of the universe. This tenet was so important to religion and power, that to believe otherwise could get you persecuted or killed.

THE EARTH: EVOLUTION OF THE FACTS

Based on the literature, the idea of a flat geocentric earth was the first common and ordinary understanding of the universe. Many of the major ancient religions, from the occultism of Mesopotamia (Sumer), to the religion of Babel and Hindu, to the myths and legends of Egypt, to the conquest of Greece and Persia, to the might of the Romans, all had a common underlying thread of the creation of gods in man’s own image and likeness and the belief in a flat geocentric universe. . 

The manufacturing of idols such as Ra, Osiris, Isis, Tammuz and Ishtar coupled with a flat geocentric universe was necessary for ” manageable and duly” control of the populace. Religion was authority and determine facts. It also ensured the perpetuation of nepotism and hereditary power. Of course, absolute power, absolute corruption.

Image result for the hebrew and flat earth cosmo
Many ancient religions, including the Hebrews, purport a Flat Fixed Earth around which the Sun and planets revolved. However, since Pythagoras, Copernicus and Galileo, this view has been questioned.


In early Mesopotamian mythology, the world was portrayed as a flat disk floating in the ocean with a hemispherical sky-dome above, and this formed the premise for early world maps  like those of Anaximander.

Needless to say, the neighbouring Hebrews adopted and assimilated these occultic thoughts and precepts into their religion as well. Indeed one of the months of the Jewish Calendar is Tammuz, named after Tammuz, Sumerian Mesopotamian god of fertility embodying the powers for new life in nature in the spring. Do you also recall how King Solomon adopted the pagan religions of his over 700 wives to the chagrin of the Hebrew God, Jehovah.

The flat earth dogma prevailed for thousands of years until it saw its first major opponent in the 6th century: Pythagoras (570 BC). His idea was proposed using constellation observations, by studying the earth’s circular shadow on the moon during a lunar eclipse and also his belief that every thing could be explained mathematically prompted him to feel that the sphere was a perfect shape. 

Pythagoras (570 – 495 BC) also made the astronomic observation that the evening star and the morning star were in fact the very same object (Venus). He was more pragmatic than religious and his studying of astrology, numbers and metaphysics was ironically considered as occultism by occultists. His famous Pythagoras Theorem is an old Sumerian principle. He was caring to nature and was believed to be a vegetarian.

Image result for pythagoras
The Brotherhood of Pythagoreans,
Pythagorean Cult and the Pythagorean Theorem are believed to be based on Sumerian numerology and mysticism. Considered as the father of philosophy. Pythagoras was excommunicated by the Greeks for his radical thoughts.


To compound maters, not only was Pythagoras using occultism ideas, he founded the Brotherhood of Pythagorean (who coined the term mathematics) which many argue, was the world’s first Secret Society and the forerunner of Free Mason. The Pythagorean Cult was infamous and Pythagoras was excommunicated by the Greeks. Pythagoras coined the term philosophy.

Philolaus 390 B.C , another Ancient Greece philosopher and student of Pythagoras, promulgated the moveable spherical earth view. He believed that there is a “central fire” that everything else in the universe revolved around, including the moon, earth, and the other planets. However, in his theory, the “central fire” wasn’t the sun itself. The sun is said to have revolved around the “central fire”, as well.

Aristotle (384 – 322 BC)

Aristotle refused to buy the moveable earth idea but he was sold on the the fact that the Earth is a sphere. According to Aristotle, the shadow of the earth on the moon during an eclipse suggested that it was a sphere. Indeed, both Plato and Aristotle adopted the spherical earth notion but rejected the moveable earth tenet component. This muddled philosophy since Aristotle is one of the most quoted philosopher. This meant that Plato and Aristotle were endorsing aspects of the Pythagorean Cult: a spherical earth.

Aristarchus (310 BC –  230 BC)

Aristarchus, a Greek astronomer and mathematician, is famously known as the first person to have proposed the new heliocentric idea of the solar system – that the earth rotated and revolved around a stationary sun. Like Galileo many years later however, his sun centred ideas were dismissed as most people found it easier to believe the views of Aristotle and Ptolemy, that it was the earth that was at the centre of the solar system.

Eratosthenes (276 BC – 195 BC)

Aristotle’s confused view of a spherical but stationary earth prevailed until,
the father of Geography, Eratosthenes, became the first person to accurately calculate the circumference of the earth.  Fortunately or unfortunately, his ideas were not abound and Aristotle’s view was still preferred and continued for the next millennium, until the “trouble maker” Nicolaus Copernicus was born.

Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) came on the scene and blurted, “We revolve around the Sun like any other planet.” He formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the centre of the universe and the world as not been the same since. Though similar to Pythagoras, Copernicus however, believed the planets orbit the sun and not a circle of fire.

Literature had it that Martin Luther (1483 – 1546), the founder of Protestant Christianity, commented on Copernicus’ theory that the Earth orbits the sun:

“This fool wishes to reverse the entire science of astronomy; but sacred Scripture tells us that Joshua commanded the sun to stand still, and not the earth (Psa xciii. I). […] Who will venture to place the authority of Copernicus above that of the Holy Spirit?” Martin Luther, Quoted in Bertrand Russell (1946).  Science has since decided who was the fool. 

 

For meddling purposes, let’s share an alleged statement by Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521), Portuguese navigator of the same period, who did not necessarily support the authority of the Church:

“The church says the earth is flat, but I know that it is round, for I have seen the shadow on the moon, and I have more faith in a shadow than in the church” –

Image result for galileo truth

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) observation of Jupiter’s moons in 1610 confirmed the Copernican’s heliocentric view of the universe but it destroyed Aristotles geocentric cosmos and horrified the Church. He too was persecuted and he died under house arrest in 1642 after being arrested in 1633.

At about the same time, German mathematician Johannes Kepler was publishing a series of laws that describe the orbits of the planets around the Sun. Still in use today, the mathematical equations provided accurate predictions of the planets’ movement under Copernican theory.

In 1687, Isaac Newton put the final nail in the coffin for the Aristotelian, geocentric view of the Universe. Building on Kepler’s laws, Newton explained why the planets moved as they did around the Sun and he gave the force that kept them in check a name: gravity.

Well, the flat earth theory is still alive and has its following.

SPHERICAL EARTH: PERCEPTION AND PERSPECTIVE

After all that bookish meandering and heady stuff, it is timely to close this blong (blog long) on some more mundane and contemporary happenings. Albeit, still a bit controversial but easier to conceive and digest. Remember Aristotle’s tenet – it is all a matter of perception. Here goes:

  1.  Observing Lunar eclipses: Round shadow, round earth? 
Image result for lunar eclipse
“The church says the earth is flat, but I know that it is round, for I have seen the shadow on the moon, and I have more faith in a shadow than in the church.” –Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521) Portuguese navigator. This statement was in reaction to the dogma of the Vatican Church in the 16th century. As was seen, the flat geometric universe was more or less the “common sense” of the day.

A few folks such as Pythagoras and Aristotle, (570 – 495 BC) and (384–322 BC) respectively taught that the round shadow of Earth on the Moon during a lunar eclipse meant that the earth is a sphere. Aristotle supported his belief by observing “there are stars seen in Egypt and  Cyprus which are not seen in the northerly regions.” Since this could only happen on a curved surface, he believed the Earth was a sphere “of no great size, for otherwise the effect of so slight a change of place would not be quickly apparent.” (De caelo, 298a2–10).

Flat Earthers reasoned that the round shadow on the moon could be produced by a flat disc that always faces the Moon head-on during the eclipse. That is true, but the Moon is only rarely directly overhead during an eclipse and a given lunar eclipse is only visible from half of the Earth at a time.  Problem?

Nope, Flat Earthers dismiss this empirical evidence of the shadow by simply saying that the moon is a hologram and not a solid. By extension, the visits to the moon by the Soviet Union’s  unmanned Luna 2 mission on 13 September 1959, and the United States’  manned Apollo 11 mission on 20 July 1969 were impossible. Of course, January’s 2019 landing of an unmanned Chinese space craft on the far side of the moon was also a HOAX. Preposterous. It is simply a NASA conspiracy.

Suffice to say, not only did Galileo noticed the moons of Jupiter, he also saw mountains on the moon suggesting a solid.

  1. Visits to Antarctica as a tourist? Normal but expensive.

Related imageIt’s not a crazy idea? Simply put the craziest thing about going to Antarctica is the cold. Don’t be daunted by Flat-Earthers that claim Antarctica is a giant impenetrable icy wall encircling the Earth to keep us from falling off our disc-shaped world.

Antarctica is the world’s southernmost and 5th largest continent. It is bigger than the European Continent and twice the size of Australia.

Image result for antarctica marathon
Visit a Marathon. A 25-day expedition departing from London  by way of Buenos Aires is $42,450 and up. Sea cruises leave from Ushuaia in Argentina lasting anywhere between 10 days and 3 weeks costing US$6,000 per person for shared accommodation cabins. CLICK TO WATCH THE MARATHON

An interesting fact is that Polar bears live only in the Arctic, and penguins live only in the Antarctic. It is also where the South Pole is situated which has 6 months of sunshine and six months of darkness with only one sunrise and sunset per year.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Is surface circumnavigation of Antarctica really possible?

The Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition  of 2 March 1958 led by British Explorer Vivian Fuchs and New Zealander Edmund Hilary (the first man to climb Everest) successfully completed the first overland crossing of Antarctica via the South Pole.

 

Image result for The Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition
New Zealander Edmund Hilary (the first man to climb Everest) and British Explorer Vivian Fuchs completed the first overland crossing of Antarctica, via the South Pole, on the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition, 2 March 1958. He was however the third person to reach the South Pole. CLICK TO WATCH THE VIDEO.

Flat Earthers insist that no one has ever crossed Antarctica. They propose that the world is a north-pole-centered disc and Antarctica is an impenetrable ice wall that encircles the planet and hides any edges. The explanation is that east-west circumnavigation is simply moving around the disc in a circle. (This is true as East-West paths form a circle in both disc and spherical geometry).

 

However, Flat Earthers believe it is possible in the disc model to traverse the North Pole, but it is not possible to perform a circumnavigation that includes the South Pole, which it posits does not exist in any event.

The Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition  of 2 March 1958 provided empirical evidence that Antarctica is a continent that can be traversed via a south pole that exist. Also, since the 1500s, many people have sailed or flown completely around the world in all directions, and none have discovered an edge or impenetrable barrier. As seen above, even tourists go to Antarctica.

  1. There is a North and South Pole? True or False?

According to Flat Earthers, the South Pole does not exist. They do believe in a North Pole which is at the centre of the flat earth.  However, how can there be North and no South? Can there be up without down or top without bottom? Is it perspective or perception?

Indeed, the South Pole does exist. It is also known as the Geographic South Pole or Terrestrial South Pole. It is one of the two points where the Earth’s axis of rotation intersects its surface. It lies on the opposite side of the Earth from the North Pole, at the centre of the Southern Hemisphere, on the continent of Antarctica.

Related image
Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station at Antarctica which was established in 1956 and has been permanently staffed since that year. WATCH VIDEO ON SOUTH POLE STATION

The south pole is the only inhabited place on the land surface of the Earth from which the Sun is continuously visible for six months and is then continuously dark for the next six months. The South Pole sees the Sun rise and set only once a year. 

 

 

 

 

  1. Satellites Pictures of the Earth. Fake News?

 

Image result for space station satellite pictures of the earth cuba
International Space Station picture showing Jamaica and Cuba. Is that a curved globe?

Satellites (Artificial) have been known to been in space and have taken mind boggling pictures suggesting a curved earth. Indeed, it was as early as October 4, 1957, that the Soviet Union launched SPUTNIK-1 into an elliptical low Earth orbit. This made its flight path to cover virtually the entire inhabited Earth. 

 

Flat Earthers say this is impossible as Artificial Satellites do not exist despite data showing that there are more than 40 countries have launched more than 4,000 satellites. According to Flat Earthers, GPS is operated by fibre optic cables running under the sea from continent to continent and by towers. There are no satellites. Fake News and conspiracy theory.

Claims by countries to have sent satellite into space is considered as conspiracy theory facilitated by NASA. One might understand NASA falsifying information but a conspiracy between the Soviet Union and NASA during the cold war era needs much thought.

SPHERICAL EARTH: HERETIC OR HEROIC? 

The Mesopotamia is considered as the cradle of civilization and our perception of the world is shaped by their culture. Sumer is also famed for being the home of occultism and mysticism. These meaningful yet satanic rituals were adopted by Egypt and the subsequent world powers, Babylon, Greece, Persia, Rome and the Anglo Saxons (Britain). The Hebrews were also tainted.

According to Aristotle and behavioural studies, our approach to life is basically perception: how we make sense of the world.  This is no easy task since the evolving of facts and the idea of an uncommon common sense make us note that even nonsense has sense in it. “Indeed, normal has become abnormal and abnormal has become normal”. By extension, today’s heresy can be tomorrow’s heroic deed.

Related image
Galileo: From heretic to hero and from villain to victim. He was persecuted by the Vatican Church for his observations of the moons around Jupiter which defunct the geocentric cosmos. In 1992, Pope John Paul II declared that the ruling against Galileo was an error resulting from “tragic mutual incomprehension.”

A great example was in 1992, when Galileo Galilei went from heretic to hero. Pope John Paul II declared that the ruling against Galileo was an error resulting from “tragic mutual incomprehension.” Seems Galileo was right all along: heliocentric universe?

 

Image result for galileo galilei truthThis embarrassing situation is creating a possible debacle for religion as we know it. It could affect the establishment’s need to keep people in line with dogma. The Church had argued that if the earth is not at the centre of the universe (geocentric) it could undermine the notion of man’s special relationship with god.  Also, since scripture seemed to support a fixed earth, any attempt to prove otherwise could make the earth seem insignificant.

Related imageThe critical thing to note is that the Truth exists and being special lies in the eyes of the beholder. Maybe, the time and effort being spent delving in astrology, science, metaphysics and religion could be best spent seeing that the hungry is fed; the naked clad and the sick given a bed. Man, be thy brother’s keeper.

Advertisements

SUPER BLOOD WOLF MOON – FLAT OR SPHERICAL EARTH SHADOW?

SUPER BLOOD WOLF MOON – A FLAT OR SPHERICAL EARTH WONDER? GEOCENTRIC OR HELIOCENTRIC

Sunday night, January 20, 2019, I decided to tinker into the realm of astronomy, astrology, mythology, theology, philosophy and a little history by watching one of the best free celestial shows in town: The Super Blood Wolf Moon starring the Sun, Earth and Moon. The lunar eclipse. Did you see it? It was quite a sight.

Image result for super blood wolf moon

I was watching from 9 pm until 2 am. The moon was in its glory and was telling me a story. A story of fact, feign, faith and fate. I watched with renewed awe as it went from golden to dark to copper red and back to golden.

At first, the edge of the shadow cover looked fuzzy or ragged.  As the eclipse progressed, the shape of the shadow became round or curved suggesting that the object that was blocking the light from the moon was a round one. Finally, the full eclipsed occurred and the moon’s colour went copper or red. Super Blood Wolf Moon.

During the nearly 5 hour show, I managed to research lunar eclipses and the reason this one was called Super Blood Wolf Moon. It launched me into the Flat Earth/ Geocentric and Spherical Earth/Heliocentric debate. Let’s us delve into it together if you dare or care. Might be a bit disturbing for the weak of heart yet enlightening for the meek at heart.

Basically, the Super Blood Wolf Moon is a result of a number of several things occurring simultaneously.

According to https://www.msn.com/en-ie/news/techandscience/the-cosmic-lexicon-you-need-for-super-blood-wolf-moon-2019/ar-BBStTHq, the “super blood wolf moon and a perigee syzygy” is explained as follows:

  • Super Blood Wolf Moon: When a super moon occurs in January and coincides with a total lunar eclipse.
  • Supermoon: A super moon is the point at which the moon comes closest to the Earth during its elliptical orbit around it. The closeness and fullness combine to make the moon look particularly large at this time.
  • Blood moon: simply describes the reddish hue of the moon during a total lunar eclipse. The color is the result of sunlight filtered and refracted by the Earth’s atmosphere illuminating the moon. When the moon is opposite the sun, with the Earth in between casting its shadow on the moon, a lunar eclipse occurs.
  • Wolf moon: This is simply the indigenous American name for the January full moon. According to the lore of yore, this full moon occurs in the dead of winter when it’s cold, the ground is frozen, and the prey pickings are slim, so wolves were hungry during this time and howled plaintively at the moon, their calls echoing frighteningly in villages.
  • Perigee: The moon orbits around the Earth elliptically. The point in the orbit of the moon or a satellite at which it is nearest to the Earth is known as a perigee. When the moon is farthest from the Earth, it’s at its apogee. It takes about two weeks for the moon to travel from apogee to perigee.
  • Syzygy: It refers to a conjunction, or an alignment in a straight line, of three celestial bodies bound by gravity. For example, during a solar or lunar eclipse when the Earth, sun, and moon are all aligned, that’s a syzygy.
  • Perigee syzygy: When the moon is at its perigee and there’s a syzygy happening, aligning it with the sun and Earth, it’s called a perigee syzygy, also known as a super moon.

CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS AND THE LUNAR ECLIPSE OF JANUARY 1504 IN JAMAICA

Recall the story of Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) who discovered Jamaica on his 2nd visit to Jamaica in 1494. Well, according to the history books, he pulled a stunt and tricked the natives using the occurrence of a Super Blood Wolf Moon eclipse. On Columbus’ fourth and final voyage to the New World, an epidemic of ship worms ate holes in the ships of his fleet and Columbus was forced to abandon two ships. He then beached his last two in Jamaica on June 25, 1503. The natives welcomed the castaways and fed them. After six months, Columbus’ crew mutinied, and robbed and murdered some of the natives, who had grown weary of feeding the crew.

Image result for columbus and the lunar eclipse in jamaicaColumbus had an almanac that foretold a lunar eclipse on Feb. 29, 1504. He met the local chief and told him the Christian god was angry with his people for no longer supplying food. Columbus told them to expect a sign of God’s displeasure three nights later, when he would make the full moon appear “inflamed with wrath.” When the Super Blood Wolf Moon came to pass, the natives were terrified and “with great howling and lamentation came running from every direction to the ships laden with provisions,” according to an account by Columbus’ son.

Just before the total phase of the eclipse was about to end, Columbus said God had pardoned the natives and would bring the moon back. The crew was well fed until help arrived in November and Columbus and his men sailed back to Spain.

CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS USED THE SPHERICAL EARTH IDEA TO DISCOVER THE “WEST INDIES”  

Image result for CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS journey to west indies
Columbus intended to travel westward to Asia based on a spherical Earth cosmos.

Not only was Columbus aware of astronomy, he also believed that the Earth was round and nursed a growing urge to sail west from Europe across the Atlantic Ocean hoping to find a route to the Indies—as the lands of China, Japan and India were then known in Europe.   On August 3, 1492, Columbus led his three ships – the Nina, the Pinta and the Santa Maria – out of the Spanish port of Palos with an objective to sail west from Spain to find an all-water route to Asia and the Indies where the riches of gold, pearls and spice awaited. Columbus took more than two months to encounter land on an island in the Bahamas that he called San Salvador; the natives called it Guanahani.

Although, Christopher was aware that the world was round (spherical) he, erroneously, thought that Spain was closer to China by sea westward than by land eastward and was just a few weeks away. As such, he naturally called the land he encountered “West Indies” thinking he had reach western Asia. This miscalculation of the distance of the Indies from Spain almost cause mutiny on the ships. The sailors began to wonder and cower in fear as they were not used to travelling this far westward . Columbus made several voyages to the Caribbean but never reached the mainland of the now America.

It was Amerigo Vespucci who got the acclamation for becoming the first explorer to recognize and identify the Mundus Novus (“New World”) in 1499 as a separate continent and not part of East Asia, contrary to what many, including Columbus had believed. While further exploring the coast of what is now South America, he learned to calculate how far west he had traveled by observing the conjunction of the Moon and the planet Mars.

MARTIN WALDSEEMULLER: MAPS AMERICA ON THE SPHERICAL EARTH

Image result for martin waldseemuller's map seeing the world anew
Carta Mariana (or Cosmographiae introductio): first ever drawing of a new continent to the West which named America in honor of Amerigo Vespucci

During this time, a German mapmaker named Martin Waldseemuller (1470 – 1520), was working on a contemporary world map. Waldseemuller designed his world map based on the writings of the ancient Greek scholar Ptolemy who touted the idea of a Spherical earth.  Based on the writings of Amerigo Vespucci, Waldseemuller also became convinced, as did many scholars at the time, that the New World comprised new continents. He designed and created a wood block world map called Carta Mariana (or Cosmographiae introductio) that contained the first ever drawing of a new continent to the West which he named America in honour of Amerigo Vespucci. Thousands of maps were printed and distributed across Europe. People everywhere began to call the New World, America.

THE EARTH: FLAT OR SPHERICAL?

Everything written above is made on assumption that the earth moves, is a sphere and not at the centre of the universe. Poppycock? Needless to say, many people denounce this view and are more prone to believing that the earth is flat, doesn’t move and is at the centre of the universe. Actually, this is an age old debate and the Mesopotamia mystery religions would confirm that the earth is flat and doesn’t move. So, is it the sun that moves or is it the earth? Does it matter?

Sadly, many people have lost their lives because they believed that the earth moves and it is the sun that is at the centre of the universe (heliocentric). They were persecuted and killed by people who believed in a fixed Flat Earth which was at the centre of the universe (geocentric).

By now, you may have taken a side and have strong convictions to the fixed Flat Earth or movable Spherical Earth idea. Of course there are strong arguments on both side of the debate.

Religions and Flat Earth. Many religions embrace a Flat Earth concept which had its genesis in Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia (from the Greek, meaning ‘between two rivers’) was an ancient region located in the eastern Mediterranean, roughly today’s Iraq.   The ‘two rivers’ are the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers . The Sumerians originally practiced a polytheistic (many gods) religion, with anthropomorphic deities representing cosmic and terrestrial forces in their world.  Anthropomorphism is the showing or treating of animals, gods, and objects as if they are human in appearance, character, or behaviour. This can be seen as expressed in the colourful language used in the religions of Babylon, Egypt, Greece and even aspects of the Hebrew Bible.

Related image
Many religions, including the Hebrew, embraced a Flat Earth concept which had its genesis in Mesopotamia.

The Babylonian cosmology was shaped like a modern domed stadium. The Babylonians considered the earth essentially flat, with a continental mass surrounded by ocean. The vault of the sky was a physical object resting upon the ocean’s waters (and perhaps also upon pillars). Sweet (salt-free) waters below the earth sometimes manifest themselves as springs. The Egyptian cosmology was also enclosed, but it was rectangular instead of round. (The Egyptians pictured the goddess Nut stretched across the sky as the enclosing dome.)

Image result for flat earth
A “flat-Earth” map drawn by Orlando Ferguson in 1893. Library of Congress/Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain

BIBLE, CHURCH AND FLAT EARTH

Egypt and early Greece, with their Flat Earth view, have had great influence on the Bible and the Church. It must be noted that the Church’s view and attitude were based on  its interpretation of the Bible and its authority of scripture.  Indeed, Joshua 10:12-13, 2 Kings 20:11, Psalms 93:1, 104:5, Ecclesiastes 1:5, Isaiah 30:26, Isaiah 38:8, 1 Thessalonians 4:16-18 and Habakkuk 3:10-11 all seemingly contradicted the astronomers.

Indeed, a peep at a few obvious texts from the bible do suggests that the earth is fixed: 1 Chronicles 16:30: “He has fixed the earth firm, immovable.”; Psalm 93:1: “Thou hast fixed the earth immovable and firm …” and Isaiah 45:18: “…who made the earth and fashioned it, and himself fixed it fast…”

However, this does not necessarily mean that the earth doesn’t orbit the sun. Indeed, we can reason that the earth has always been fixed and immovable, both in relation to us and in relation to its orbit or movement around the sun. The earth has not “unfix” itself and “move” itself out of its orbit around the sun. In fact we’ve learned to take it for granted that the sun will shine during the day and that there will be ground for us to stand on when we awake in the morning.

In, Joshua 10:12-13: Then Joshua spoke to the Lord in the day when the Lord delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel, and he said in the sight of Israel: s“Sun, stand still over Gibeon; And Moon, in the Valley of Aijalon.” So the sun stood still, And the moon stopped, Till the people had revenge Upon their enemies.

The language that Joshua uses in addressing the sun and moon is the language of ordinary observation still used today in the scientific age. Probably Joshua and his contemporaries thought of the sun as moving around the earth, but his language should not be pressed to construct a “view of the universe” any more than should todays reference to the rising and setting of the sun (Marten Woodstra, The Book of Joshua, Grand Rapids, Eerdmans: 1981, p. 175).

Image result for ancient cosmology  flat earth
Ancient religions cosmos of the Earth.

Suffice to say, the Bible is written in colourful language using Anthropomorphism, figurative speech and personification, mostly influence by Greek, Babylon and Egyptian philosophy. Image result for ancient hebrew view of the earth

Provokingly, it is believed that one of the chief characters in the Old testament was not only influenced by Egyptian philosophy but was also trained at a high level. Moses, who is a Hebrew by birth, was brought up as an Egyptian in Pharaoh’s palace, learning the art and science of mysticism.  It is even being postulated that the Decalogue or 10 Commandments mimic verses from The Egyptian Book of the Dead which was written circa 1800 BCE in 1491 BCE., some three centuries later.

A comparison of the Book of the Dead text with the version of the Ten Commandments found in King James Version Exodus 20:2-17 is striking in similarities and differences. Both consist of a series of negative statements but one extol only ONE god and revered the Sabbath.

Related imageBook of the Dead: “I have not belittled God. I have not murdered or given such an order. I have not copulated (illicitly); I have not been unchaste. I have not used false balances or scales. I have not purloined (held back) the offerings to the gods. I have not stolen. I have King t uttered lies or curses.”

Exodus 20:7-16: “Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain….Thou shalt not kill. Thou shalt not commit adultery.Thou shall not steal. Thou shalt not bear false witness against they neighbor…” 6,7

The major difference in the two writings is that Moses wrote the Decalogue from the point of view of monotheism (one god), a Hebrew doctrine, while The Book of the Dead embraced polytheism (many gods), a Mesopotamian and Egyptian doctrine.

The Book of the Dead: I know thee, I know thy name, I know the names of the 42 Gods who are with thee in this broad hall of the Two Truths .

King James Bible: Thou shall have no other gods before me cause I am a jealous God.

The Book of the Dead is also silent on the Sabbath but the Bible commands: Remember the Sabbath to keep it holy.

FLAT EARTH VS SPHERICAL EARTH POINTERS

There are many claims and counter claims supporting and denouncing the idea of a Flat Earth or a Spherical Earth. Many of these claims are for theologians, philosophers and scientists and will boggle the mind of the average person.  It is possible to watch videos on Flat Earth vs Spherical Earth and switch views upon watching one or the other.

Needless to say, common sense is uncommon. It depends on the locale of the person. Imagine a Jamaican child who experiences almost 12 hours of sunlight and darkness (day and night), every day without fail for 365 days in a year. Now imagine a child in Barrow, the northernmost town in Alaska, who won’t see the sun for 67 days come winter, (beginning in November and ending in January) but enjoy the midnight sun all summer – over 80 days of uninterrupted daylight.

Now imagine the Jamaican trying to convince the Alaskan that it is impossible to see the sun at midnight or to have months of pure darkness and no sunshine. If they were reggae artists the Jamaican would sing “ every day the sun rises” but the Alaskan would sing “Only some days the sun rises”. Both would be arguing from their own “common sense” and both would be wrong outside their locale.

As seen above, determining fact from feign and truth from falsehood can be difficult. I have chosen a few of the claims for Flat Earth and Spherical Earth for discussion.  These pointers include the curve on the moon during a lunar eclipse; Circumnavigation of the Earth; Antarctica being a continent and not a circle of ice around the earth; the existence of the South Pole; Satellite pictures of the earth and possibility of seeing the sunset twice in one day. The main thread in these claims is that they can be determined by an average citizen.

1. Reading Aristotle . Aristotle(384–322 BC) was Plato’s prize student and “the mind of the school” and he believed that the earth was a sphere. Aristotle observed “there are stars seen in Egypt and Cyprus which are not seen in the northerly regions.” Since this could only happen on a curved surface, he believed the Earth was a sphere “of no great size, for otherwise the effect of so slight a change of place would not be quickly apparent.” (De caelo, 298a2–10)

Aristotle provided further physical and observational arguments supporting the idea of a spherical Earth:

  • Every portion of the Earth tends toward the centre until by compression and convergence they form a sphere. (De caelo, 297a9–21)
  • Travelers going south see southern constellations rise higher above the horizon; and
  • The shadow of Earth on the Moon during a lunar eclipse is round. (De caelo, 297b31–298a10).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spherical_Earth

2.   Observing Lunar eclipses. 

“The church says the earth is flat, but I know that it is round, for I have seen the shadow on the moon, and I have more faith in a shadow than in the church.” – Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521) Portuguese navigator Discoverer of the Straits of Magellan and the Philippines.

Image result for shadow of disc on the moon lunar eclipseThe shadow of the Earth on the Moon during a lunar eclipse is always a dark circle that moves from one side of the Moon to the other (partially grazing it during a partial eclipse). This could be produced by a flat disc that always faces the Moon head-on during the eclipse, but this is inconsistent with the fact that the Moon is only rarely directly overhead during an eclipse. For each eclipse, the local surface of the Earth is pointed in a somewhat different direction. The shadow of a circular disc held at an angle is an oval, not a circle as is seen during the eclipse. The idea of the Earth being a flat disc is also inconsistent with the fact that a given lunar eclipse is only visible from half of the Earth at a time.

The only shape that casts a round shadow no matter which direction it is pointed is a sphere, and the ancient Greeks, since Aristotle, deduced that this must mean the Earth is spherical.

3.   Visit Antarctica continent as a tourist. Not an impenetrable ice wall that encircles the Earth

Image result for antarctica continent is the number how many
Tourists visits to Antarctica and the South Pole is growing rapidly to the extent that its impact is worrying some authorities. CLICK TO WATCH EFFECT OF TOURISM ON ANTARCTICA

Antarctica is the world’s southernmost continent resting in the Antarctic Circle and surrounded by the Southern Ocean. With 14 million square kilometers (5.4 million square miles) of area, it’s the 5th largest continent. It is bigger than the European Continent and twice the size of Australia.

Antarctica is the highest, driest, coldest, windiest and brightest of the seven continents. Almost 98% of the continent is covered by ice 1 mile thick. This ice accumulated over millions of years through snowfall.  This makes for harsh terrain and not many people live there. In 2016, the highest population recorded during the year is just over 4,000 and were mainly researchers, scientists and tourists. Presently, the Antarctic ice sheet contains 90% of the ice on Earth and would raise sea levels worldwide by over 200 feet were it to melt.

Since, the Arctic and Antarctic are cold, dark, and remote, we often think these two places are nearly the same. However, they are quite different. One notable difference is that polar bears live only in the Arctic, and penguins live only in the Antarctic.

Image result for antarctic ice marathon
Get your ticket to Antarctica for the Marathon. A two-week excursion by air with one day at the Pole, and a 25-day expedition (including all travel time and stopovers) skiing the last degree to the Pole and flying back. Departs from London by way of Buenos Aires. $42,450 and up. CLICK TO WATCH VIDEO CLIP OF 2017 MARATHON

Despite housing zero permanent residents, Antarctica has two major marathons. The Antarctic Ice Marathon takes place at the base of the Ellsworth Mountains and has been running since 2004. Participants fly in on a private jet from South America to run over snow and ice, where the average temperature is between 0°F and 10°F, and the average windchill is -4°F.

However, don’t be daunted by Flat-Earthers that claim that Antarctica is a giant icy wall designed to keep us from falling off our disc-shaped world. It is a continent of 90% ice.

Flat Earthers believe that no one has ever crossed Antarctica.

3. Surface circumnavigation of the Earth and Antarctica

Image result for antarctic hillary
New Zealander Edmund Hilary (the first man to climb Everest) completed the first overland crossing of Antarctica, via the South Pole, on 2 March 1958. He was however the third person to reach the South Pole. CLICK TO WATCH THE VIDEO.

Since the 1500s, many people have sailed or flown completely around the world in all directions, and none have discovered an edge or impenetrable barrier.

Some Flat Earth theories that propose the world is a north-pole-centered disc, conceive of Antarctica as an impenetrable ice wall that encircles the planet and hides any edges. This disc model explains east-west circumnavigation as simply moving around the disc in a circle. (East-west paths form a circle in both disc and spherical geometry.) It is possible in this model to traverse the North Pole, but it is not possible to perform a circumnavigation that includes the South Pole (which it posits does not exist).

Explorers, government researchers, commercial pilots, and tourists have been to Antarctica and found that it is not a large ring that encircles the entire world, but actually a roughly disc-shaped continent smaller than South America but larger than Australia, with an interior that can in fact be traversed in order to take a shorter path from e.g. the tip of South America to Australia than would be possible on a disc.

Image result for Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition i
First land crossing of Antarctica. CLICK to watch part 5 of the expedition which was recorded. 

Many exploratory airplanes have passed over the continent in various directions.  The first overland crossing of Antarctica, the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition in 1955-1958, succeeded in the 1950’s what Sir Ernest Shackleton had attempted to do in his ill-fated expedition in 1914-1917. British Explorer Vivian Fuchs and New Zealander Edmund Hilary (the first man to climb Everest) led the expedition which took place during the IGY – International Geophysical Year. The expedition successfully completed the first overland crossing of Antarctica, via the South Pole, on 2 March 1958.

4. The South Pole Exists

Image result for United States Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station
Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station at Antarctica. The North Pole is the Arctic Ocean while the South Pole is on land. WATCH VIDEO ON SOUTH POLE STATION

The South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole or Terrestrial South Pole, is one of the two points where the Earth’s axis of rotation intersects its surface. It is the southernmost point on the surface of the Earth and lies on the opposite side of the Earth from the North Pole.

Situated on the continent of Antarctica, it is the site of the United States Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station, which was established in 1956 and has been permanently staffed since that year. The Geographic South Pole is distinct from the South Magnetic Pole, the position of which is defined based on the Earth’s magnetic field. The South Pole is at the centre of the Southern Hemisphere.

Today, the ice sheet above the South Pole drifts about 10 meters (33 feet) every year. Compared to the North Pole, the South Pole is relatively easy to travel to and study. The North Pole is in the middle of the Arctic Ocean on a sheet of ice, while the South Pole is on a stable piece of land. 

According to Flat Earthers, the South Pole does not exist. They do believe in a North Pole. However, how can there be North and no South? Can there be up without down or top without bottom?

5.   Observing the Sun

On a flat Earth, an omnidirectional Sun (emitting light in all directions, as it does) would illuminate the entire surface at the same time, and all places would experience sunrise and sunset at the horizon at the same time (with some small variations due to mountains and valleys). With a spherical Earth, half the planet is in daylight at any given time (the hemisphere facing the Sun) and the other half is experiencing nighttime. When a given location on the spherical Earth is in sunlight, its antipode – the location exactly on the opposite side of the Earth – is always experiencing nighttime. The spherical shape of the Earth causes the Sun to rise and set at different times in different places, and different locations get different amounts of sunlight each day.

In order to explain day and night, time zones, and the seasons, some flat Earth theorists propose that the Sun does not emit light in all directions, but acts more like a spotlight, only illuminating part of the flat Earth at a time. This theory is not consistent with observation; at sunrise and sunset, a spotlight Sun would be up in the sky at least a little bit, rather than at the horizon where it is always actually observed. A spotlight Sun would also appear at different angles in the sky with respect to a flat ground than it does with respect to a curved ground. Assuming light travels in straight lines, actual measurements of the Sun’s angle in the sky from locations very distant from each other are only consistent with a geometry where the Sun is very far away and is being seen from a hemispherical surface (the daylight half of the Earth). These two phenomena are related: a low-altitude spotlight Sun would spent most of the day near the horizon for most locations on Earth (which is not observed), but rise and set fairly close to the horizon. A high-altitude Sun would spend more of the day away from the horizon, but rise and set fairly far from the horizon (which is not observed).

6.    Length of the day

On a flat Earth with an omnidirectional Sun, all places would experience the same amount of daylight every day, and all places would get daylight at the same time. Actual day length varies considerably, with places closer to the poles getting very long days in the summer and very short days in the winter, with northerly summer happening at the same time as southerly winter. Places north of the Arctic Circle and south of the Antarctic Circle get no sunlight for at least one day a year, and get 24-hour sunlight for at least one day a year. Both the poles experience sunlight for 6 months and darkness for 6 months, at opposite times.

The movement of daylight between the northern and southern hemispheres happens because of the axial tilt of the Earth. The imaginary line around which the Earth spins, which goes between the North Pole and South Pole, is tilted about 23° from the oval that describes its orbit around the Sun. The Earth always points in the same direction as it moves around the Sun, so for half the year (summer in the Northern Hemisphere), the North Pole is pointed slightly toward the Sun, keeping it in daylight all the time because the Sun lights up the half of the Earth that is facing it (and the North Pole is always in that half due to the tilt). For the other half of the orbit, the South Pole is tilted slightly toward the Sun, and it is winter in the Northern Hemisphere. This means that at the equator, the Sun is not directly overhead at noon, except around the autumnal equinox and vernal equinox, when one spot on the equator is pointed directly at the Sun.

The length of the day varies because as the Earth rotates some places (near the poles) pass through only a short curve near the top or bottom of the sunlight half; other places (near the equator) travel along much longer curves through the middle.

7.    Watching the sun set twice

On level ground, the difference in the distance to the horizon between lying down and standing up is large enough to watch the Sun set twice by quickly standing up immediately after seeing it set for the first time while lying down. This also can be done with a cherry picker or a tall building with a fast elevator. On a flat Earth, one would not be able to see the Sun again (unless standing near the edge closest to the Sun) due to a much faster-moving Sun shadow.

When the supersonic Concorde took off not long after sunset from London and flew westward to New York faster than the sunset was advancing westward on the ground, passengers observed a sunrise in the west. After landing in New York, passengers saw a second sunset in the west

8. Satellites Pictures of the Earth

Image result for Central America from the International Space Station
An astronaut aboard the International Space Station (ISS) focused a digital camera on the narrow strip of land that joins North and South America and divides the Caribbean Sea (left) from the Pacific Ocean (right).

Image result for sputnik 1
October 4 1957, the Soviet Union launched SPUTNIK-1 into an elliptical low Earth orbit

Satellites (Artificial) have been known to been in space and have taken mind boggling pictures suggesting a curved earth. Flat Earthers say this is impossible as Artificial Satellites do not exist despite data showing that there are more than 40 countries that have launched more than 4,000 satellites.

Indeed, on October 4 1957, the Soviet Union launched SPUTNIK-1 into an elliptical low Earth orbit. It was a 58 cm (23 in) diameter polished metal sphere, with four external radio antennas to broadcast radio pulses. Its radio signal was easily detectable even by amateurs, and the 65° inclination and duration of its orbit made its flight path cover virtually the entire inhabited Earth. This surprise success precipitated the American Sputnik crisis and triggered the Space Race, a part of the Cold War.

According to Flat Earthers, GPS is operated by fibre optic cables running under the sea from continent to continent and by towers. There are no satellites. Claims by countries to have sent satellite into space is considered as conspiracy theory facilitated by NASA. One might understand NASA falsifying information but a conspiracy between the Soviet Union and NASA during the cold war era needs much thought.

THE EARTH: MOVABLE OR FIXED? GEOCENTRIC OR HELIOCENTRIC?

Image result for heliocentricAlthough Aristotle, whose ideas prevailed, believed that the Earth was a sphere he also believed in a Geocentric universe where the planets and the Sun orbited Earth. He saw no sign that the Earth was in motion: no perpetual wind blew over the surface of the Earth, and a ball thrown straight up into the air doesn’t land behind the thrower, as Aristotle assumed it would if the Earth were moving. For Aristotle, this meant that the Earth had to be stationary, and the planets, the Sun, and the fixed dome of stars rotated around Earth.

In the early second century BC, Eratosthenes underlined Aristotle’s spherical earth notion by accurately measuring the circumference of the spherical earth and Claudius Ptolemy’s Almagest, from the early second century AD, provided a useful model for calculating the positions of heavenly bodies. While this model was geocentric, it did not promote a flat earth, but instead was based upon a spherical earth.

For nearly 1,000 years, Aristotle’s view of a stationary Spherical Earth at the centre of a revolving universe dominated the studies of the physical world. This geocentric worldview became ingrained in Christian theology, making it a doctrine of religion as much as natural philosophy.

Then, according to Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, “Of all discoveries and opinions, none may have exerted a greater effect on the human spirit than the doctrine of Copernicus. The world has scarcely become known as round and complete in itself when it was asked to waive the tremendous privilege of being the centre of the universe.”

Image result for sun centered universe copernicusNicolaus Copernicus blurted, “We revolve around the Sun like any other planet.”

Although, Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier, it was Nicolaus Copernicus, (1473-1543), a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer, that formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the centre of the universe and the world as not been the same since.

Martin Luther, the founder of Protestant Christianity, commented on Copernicus’ theory that the Earth orbits the sun:

“This fool wishes to reverse the entire science of astronomy; but sacred Scripture tells us that Joshua commanded the sun to stand still, and not the earth (Psa xciii. I). […] Who will venture to place the authority of Copernicus above that of the Holy Spirit?” Martin Luther, Quoted in Bertrand Russell (1946).  Science has since decided who was the fool. 

Image result for tycho brahe discoveriesTycho Brahe, (1546 – 1601) was a Danish astronomer and nobleman arguably the most famous astronomer of his day. He believed in the idea of a geocentric universe, a universe with Earth at its center was in opposition to Copernicus’ belief in a heliocentric universe with the sun at its centre. He advocated for an alternative to the Ptolemaic geocentric system: a geo-heliocentric system now known as the Tychonic system in which the five then known planets orbit the sun, while the sun and the moon orbit the Earth.

Related image
Giordano Bruno was accused by the Church of being a heretic.  He was burned at the stake in 1600 CE.

Giordano Bruno (1548 – 17 February 1600) was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, mathematician, poet, and cosmological theorist. Contrary to Tycho, he extended the then-novel Copernican model. He not only adopted the Copernican view that the sun was the centre of the solar system, but, also imagined that there were infinite worlds out there in space, many with intelligent life on them. Of course, such heretic thoughts wreak havoc with the idea that God had one son, who lived and died on one planet to be salvation to one specie etc.

“On the demand of the spiritual authorities, the Vatican (Inquisition or Holy See as the Romans loved to call it), Bruno was removed from Venice to Rome, and confined in the prison of the Inquisition, accused not only of being a heretic, but also a heresiarch, who had written things unseemly concerning religion. The special charge against him being that he had taught the plurality of worlds, a doctrine repugnant to the whole tenor of Scripture and inimical to revealed religion, especially as regards the plan of salvation. After an imprisonment of two years he was brought before his judges, declared guilty of the acts alleged, excommunicated, and, on his nobly refusing to recant (death before dishonour) , was delivered over to the secular authorities to be punished ‘as mercifully as possible, and without the shedding of his blood,’ the horrible formula for burning a prisoner at the stake.” He was burned at the stake in 1600 CE.

“History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science” by John William Draper (1881

Related image
Galileo pointed his telescope into the night sky for a number of nights in January, 1610  and the world was changed. He saw the movements of moons around Jupiter which dismantled Aristotles geocentric cosmos and supported Copernicus  heliocentric cosmos.

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) was a priest, Italian mathematician, scientist and astronomer. He acquired the design of Dutch inventor Hans Lippershey’s telescope (invented in 1608) and improved on the design. Galileo pointed his telescope into the night sky and the world was changed. He discovered that multiple stellar bodies have their own moons, and that the Earth orbits the sun. Galileo reported seeing … four ‘stars’ orbiting the planet Jupiter, which he eventually concluded must be satellites or moons. Galileo also observed the phases of Venus, which proved that the planet orbits the Sun.

Galileo was convinced that he had now seen proof of the Copernican view of the universe with his own eyes. He also concluded that if Aristotle were right about all things orbiting Earth, then these moons could not exist.

This so alarmed the Catholic Church that in 1616 CE they issued an injunction against Galileo to force him not to discuss these findings. Due to the Church’s implacable opposition to the heliocentric theory, Galileo’s  cosmological work Dialogue on the Two Great World Systems was not published until 1632.

Clare Gibson tells this part of the story:

Horrified by its contents, the Church banned the book, subjected its author to house arrest and eventually ‘persuaded’ Galileo to recant his allegedly heretical, Copernican views.” Perhaps not very brave as Bruno, but practical to the end, he may have thought it best to be a live astronomer than a dead ideologue.

Related imageIt took the church 359 years to rehabilitate Galileo Galilei. Only in 1992 did the Vatican formally acknowledge that it had been wrong and Galileo right.

At about the same time, German mathematician Johannes Kepler was publishing a series of laws that describe the orbits of the planets around the Sun. Still in use today, the mathematical equations provided accurate predictions of the planets’ movement under Copernican theory. In 1687, Isaac Newton put the final nail in the coffin for the Aristotelian, geocentric view of the Universe. Building on Kepler’s laws, Newton explained why the planets moved as they did around the Sun and he gave the force that kept them in check a name: gravity.

THE SUPER BLOOD WOLF MOON AND THE FLAT EARTH CONSPIRACY 

The Aristotelian geocentric view that the earth was the center of the universe and that all heavenly bodies revolved around the Earth was a widely held notion up to the 18th century. Indeed, many of my Flat Earthers friends share that view. 

Interestingly, although  Aristotle believed in a geocentric universe he felt that the Earth was a sphere but Flat Earthers vigorously disagree with him in this regard. In the early second century BC, Eratosthenes accurately measured the circumference of the spherical earth and Claudius Ptolemy’s Almagest, from the early second century AD, provided a useful model for calculating the positions of heavenly bodies. While his model was geocentric, it did not promote a flat earth, but instead was based upon a spherical earth.

Flat Earthers have claimed that a heliocentric universe and a spherical earth are conspiracy theories perpetuated by the corrupt Catholic Church. The only truth in that claim is that the Church is corrupt. As was seen, Copernicus (1473-1543),  Giordano Bruno (1548 – 17 February 1600) and Galileo (1564-1642) all proposed a heliocentric universe (sun at centre  of universe) but this was against Church teaching and they were persecuted, even killed. Their blood cried out to the maker of truth.

Lest we forget our past and repeat it. There are no records of Spherical  Earthers killing Flat Earthers for their belief in a flat earth. However, history has shown that Flat Earthers represented by the crusades and Inquisition ordered by the Holy See or Vatican Church, have killed many innocent souls whose only crime was not to believe in a geocentric universe.

Is it really worth killing over a Flat Earth or a Spherical Earth? Does one feel demoted or extra special if  one realizes that Earth, despite its small size, is still the place to live? Many Christians think that to believe that the Earth is not the centre of the universe but is just one of many planets, could reduce their faith in a great creator who made the Earth specially for his purpose. It would make them feel insignificant. They also think this knowledge could mean that no higher power cares about humanity, and Jesus did not suffer just for the benefit of its human inhabitants. The implications on prayer, faith and fate could result in the demise of the Church.

Related imageCommon sense eventually prevailed, and fortunately or unfortunately, kids are now taught in kindergarten that the earth is spherical, and does move but is fixed in its plane and orbit around the sun as well as doesn’t move under their feet because of gravity. Indeed, the church bowed and in 1992 the Vatican formally acknowledge that it had been wrong and Galileo right. Eppur Si Mu ovo: And yet it (earth) moves.  Galileo Galilei. Of course he was simply using observation to support Nicolaus Copernicus, “We revolve around the Sun like any other planet.”

EASTER, ISHTAR, ASHTORETH: GODDESS OF FERTILITY & QUEEN OF HEAVEN

EASTER

There are a lot of things that Easter is and there are things Easter is not. Easter is a goddess. Easter is a queen. Easter is real yet it is make belief scene. Easter is sanity yet requires a degree of insanity. Easter is recognition of Jesus’ death by name but Easter dishonors Jesus’ death in deeds and fame. Easter is poisonous yet Easter is good for you. These are all factual despite seemingly diverse views. WHAT? How comes? Here goes.

EASTER, ISHTAR or Ashtoreth which means goddess of fertility, has been a part of my life for more than five decades. As a child, my Easter kite was one of my most prized possession. (Lost a few friends and got several spankings because of kite flying). Sigh. Bun and cheese and fish. That was my dish during Easter. Of course, I was carted off to church on “Good” Friday as well as bright and early  morning Easter Sunday.

Was a glorious time though. Easter. “Good” Friday and Easter Monday were public holidays so no school, or as I got older, no work. It was a lot of fun and frolic , if not careful you could eat until you get colic.

I don’t recall our doing any Easter eggs but then again, maybe I was too caught up in kites and bun  and cheese to noticed. What I remembered though was that there were images of an unfortunate man, called Jesus Christ, severely battered and strung up on a cross. Not so sure what he did to deserve such a wretched death. He seemed okay to me. I heard stories he raised people from the dead, healed the sick and also fed multitudes. Not sure why you would kill someone for that.

Well, you could say Jesus was kind of out of order or rude to go into the church and turn over the tables and then whipped the money changers. Maybe it border on destruction of property and physical assault occasioning bodily harm, felonious at worst but still not worthy of death. Also, he was a bit over confident and his claims about being with god when the earth was made was a bit troubling if not arrogant, but still not enough reasons to kill him like that. Mentally disturbed. Maybe. Criminal. Come on.

The man on the cross  had a “crown” of thorns on his head and this was the sad part about Easter, so I thought.  I even use to wonder if this crucified man on the cross was being celebrated or tolerated. I was perplexed why they allow us kids to foster a liking for such savagery and even required us to wear the cross(es) around our necks and had them placed in our homes. Interestingly, theses cross(es) were sold to us too. (Marketing or trickery?)

My family tried to explain to me that this seemingly wretched man was indeed of royalty and was the son of god. (Wow, there and then went my ambitions for royalty). They explained that he came and bore our sins and by his death and blood we were healed and our sins paid for upon his resurrection, three days and three nights after his death. To show our appreciation of this death and resurrection we celebrate good Friday for his Death and Easter Sunday for his resurrection. Needless to say, my mathematically inclined family could not, to this day, determine how we get from Friday evening to Sunday morning to consist of three days and three nights.

Such was Easter until I began working with the Library Service and got exposed to the world of reading and knowledge. Suffice to say, knowledge had me confused at first as I realized that many facts are fiction and many things seen as fiction are facts. Ignorance is not bliss and knowledge is not freedom missed.

Say, have you ever wondered what or who is Easter? When is Easter? Why is Easter? Is Easter real or make belief and just a figment of the imagination?  Here is a possible, albeit, controversial if not heretical take on Easter based on literature and intuition. Read on and draw your own conclusion.

http://www.bibleinfo.com/en/questions/ash-wednesday-bible

WHAT OR WHO IS EASTER?

As mentioned, Easter or Ishtar or Ashtoreth means “goddess of fertility”. In a nutshell, Easter is an attempt by our pastoral fore-parents to recognize and celebrate the fact that when Spring comes, nature comes back alive after the long cold dreary dark winter. Fertility reigns and new born life flourish. Animals reproduce and plants and birds strive. Such glorious things need to be encouraged and one way to do this is to have rites and festivals of appreciation.

Our ancestors realized that the Moon, Sun and Venus influenced their agricultural output so these created things became the creator and were worshipped as the source of life. The Winter Solstice was given to the Sun (male) and the Spring Equinox was given to the Moon and Venus (female) . Of course all forms of worship need priests and a power order. Hence the origin of Winter and Spring worship and by extension religion.

Easter

IS EASTER REAL?

As suggested, Ishtar or Easter is the incarnation of nature at  the Spring Equinox into a goddess and is one of the earliest form of documented worship and control.

Yet, the question still abound: Is Easter or Ishtar real or make belief? She is as real and as make belief as how the names of the days of the weeks are real but make belief. In other words, Easter is based on real things but is not real.

Is Sunday or Monday or even Wednesday real? Depends. What is real is that every 24 hr we see a repetition of things and we call it a day. For example, in the Caribbean, the sun appears first in the East almost same time everyday after 24 hours. That is fact and real. However when we give a name to a particular batch of time of 24 hour as Sunday or Monday or Wednesday, that is make belief and imaginary.

In reality, there is a day but no such thing as Sunday or Monday unless we imagined it exist by painfully taking note of each 24 hours and giving it a name. Now a days, we use a calendar to help with the make belief and ensure we keep the counting right.

In short we create a world of make believe where we all agree that a particular 24 hour is designated by a name and every 7 day we call it a week and start all over again. We go froward then back, forward then backward. This imagination is called civilization and progress and result in what we now call mid life crisis. Why not every 8 day  or 10 day or no day is a week?

Similarly, Easter is an imagination or confusing state of mind associated with the full moon. (Recall people are believed to go crazy near full moon). That is what happen at Easter. A bit of shrewdness, schizophrenia and truth encapsulate in stories called Myths and Legends. Myths and Legends are boasty words for lies and fiction.

These stories were created with a shrewd copying and explanation of real things with a special goal of warping and training minds for proselyting and deception. Developed from before the time of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, these myths and legends were used to justify power and claim to leadership. The Easter story is one of the first set of myths and legends developed to honour nature (Moon) and to set up power and control over mankind. It was the first type of religion.

THE FIRST EASTER

Easter ArtemisEggsEaster started thousands of years before the birth of Christ but was first considered organized religion with the Nimrod and tower of Babel story from a biblical perspective. It’s recognition and justification centred on the notion of Myths and Legends which are normally far fetched stories embodying some truth. Of course, different nations had their version of the “truth”.

According to these myths, Inanna, was the first name for the Spring Equinox deity as coined by the ancient Sumerian who called her goddess of love, beauty, sex, desire, fertility, war, combat, justice, and political power. She was also known as the Queen of Heaven. Later on, Inanna was worshipped by the Babylonians and Assyrians under the name Ishtar or Ashtoreth or Easter.   She was associated with the planet Venus which as we know is the brightest “star” apart from the sun and moon.

In Greek Mythology she was called Aphrodite and her husband was Adonis or Dumuzid the Shepherd (later known as Tammuz). Ancient Egypt had her as Isis and her husband Osiris. Her most prominent symbols included the lion, and the eight pointed star.

So far, we have been looking at inanimate things surrounding religion and worship and the idea of Easter or Ishtar. Well, the plot thickened and this is where reality and imagination dove tail or become blurred.

WHO IS SEMIRAMIS?

Some literature state that Ishtar actually started out as the infamous Semiramis,  the wife of Nimrod, of biblical fame who was an opponent to the Creator. The idea is that Nimrod started religion with the help of Semiramis. She influenced him to create a mystery religion based on the stars and zodiac. This polytheism (many gods) was to replace the Creator’s monotheism (one god). The place associated with this is Assyria and as such, most early myths began in Mesopotamia. As Assyria lost its world power status, Babylon simply adopt the concept with change of names. Persia, Greece and Rome did the same upon becoming world powers. The conqueror usurp the beliefs of the conquered.

For example Ishtar is akin to Venus (Rome), Aphrodite (Greek), and Isis (Egypt).

It is unclear how Nimrod died as in in the Book of Jasher it is said that Esau, son of Isaac killed him; while Josephus stated that Shem, the son of Noah, killed Nimrod. However, after his death, Nimrod body ascended into the heavens and became the sun god himself. A bit horrifying but here comes the romantic part.

Nimrod, the sun god, became rays of light and implanted his seed into his wife, Semiramis now a widow, and impregnate her.

Ash Wednesday semiramis.tammuz
Semiramis and Tammuz (Mother and child worship)

The myth further stated that the child  was called Tammuz , son of the sun god. He was responsible for bringing light into the world and to fight darkness.

Can you guess when Tammuz was born? If you said at the Winter Solstice (December 22 – 25) you are correct. For those steeped in religious studies, you will recall that Invictus Sol (the unconquerable sun) was born on the shortest day of the year or the Saturnalia (December 22 -25) and we worship him today every December 25. That is Tammuz. Some customs called him Baal, or Mithra and more recently Jesus Christ, to legitimize its worship. An apple by any other name is still an apple though. Click here to See my blog on December 25 worship

As the myth would have it, Tammuz mother, Semiramis died and the gods looked favorably on her as she was the mother of the son of the sun god. She was sent back to earth as the Spring fertility goddess, Ashtoreth/Easter, always shown as a well endowed bare breasted  queen of fertility. According to the myth, she emerged from a giant egg that landed in the Euphrates river at sunrise on the Sunday after the full moon after the Spring equinox.

(By the way, that is how we set Easter dates. The Sunday after the full moon after March 21. Thus, Easter can be as early as March 22 or as late as April 25).

Semiramis, the queen of heaven, was “born again” as the goddess Easter (Ishtar/Ashtarte/Ashtoreth). To prove her divine authority, Semiramis, now Ashtoreth/Easter, changed a bird into an egg laying rabbit. Hence, decorated eggs and stories about rabbits are still part of today’s Easter ritual.

The Old Testament even referred to her. “The women were engaged in kneading dough and baking cakes of bread for the “Queen of Heaven” ” (Jeremiah 7:18). (Fertility, ability to have children, is important to a woman).

Easter Ishtar

THE RITUALS AND FESTIVITIES OF EASTER

Cakes and buns: Our hot cross buns originated from the cakes which were baked and given as presents to Easter or the Queen of Heaven.

Eating of Ham: Tammuz (son of the sun god) was killed by a pig and in order to bring him back to live, no meat was eaten for 40 days (LENT) but at Easter Sunday, a pig was killed and eaten in revenge.

Fish eating on “Good” Friday: The fish symbol also represents the goddess of fertility and is considered as a woman’s vulva: the creator of life. The eating of fish on Fridays was a sacrament to the goddess.

Virgins sex: As the cult of Ishtar developed, the priests would take and  impregnate young virgins on the altar of the goddess of fertility at sunrise on Easter Sunday.

Blood sacrifice: A year after impregnation, the priests of Easter would sacrifice these three-month old babies on the altar at the front of the sanctuary.

Easter eggs: The priest dyed Easter eggs in the blood of the sacrificed infants as eggs were great examples of the embodiment of fertility and life. (Recall the myth of how Semiramis came back to earth from a giant egg and then turned a bird into an egg laying rabbit).

You must be saying wow. You knew Easter was bloody but it was suppose to be the blood of Jesus, that was shed to save the sins of the world. Not the blood of infants.

WAS EASTER CREATED BEFORE JESUS CHRIST’S DEATH OR AFTER?

Until I was in my late teens, I honestly and fervently believed Easter was in recognition of Jesus’ death and resurrection. I began working with the Library Service and all that changed. In fact, I began to realize that Easter dishonored Jesus’s death. 

The evidence show that the crucifixion of Jesus was only attached to Easter, 300 years after Jesus Christ died, under a political and ecclesiastical marriage of differences, initiated by Emperor Constantine of Rome to keep his subjects under rule. (Council of Nicea). In short, Easter predated Jesus by thousands of years so this negate the idea that Easter was being celebrated as the recognition of Jesus’s death and resurrection.

Interestingly, it should be noted that the new testament even mentioned Easter by name and being around at the time of Christ and the Peter, the disciple.

Acts 12: 4 state that And when he (Herod) had apprehended him, he put him in prison, and delivered him to four quaternions of soldiers to keep him; intending after Easter to bring him forth to the people. (The Romans were already worhsipping Easter before Jesus was attached 300 years after).

Easter, is also mentioned in the Old Testament, in the time of the prophets such as Isaiah and Ezekiel, thousands of years before Jesus Christ was born. Ashtoreth/Easter is mentioned in the old testament and in every instance that it is mentioned, Jehovah, the god of the Hebrews/Isrealite is pretty much annoyed, and in vengeance mode. In short, Easter dishonoured the Creator and Jesus, his son.

Here are a few examples of Easter or the Queen of Heaven in the Old Testament in abominable associations. Proof that Easter was worshipped long before Christ born.

bibleEzek 8:14 Then he brought me to the door of the gate of the LORD’S house which was toward the north; and, behold, there sat women weeping for Tammuz. (Lent) 

2 Kings 23:13 And the high places that were before Jerusalem, which were on the right hand of the mount of corruption, which Solomon the king of Israel had builded for  Ashtoreth   the abomination of the Zidonians, and for Chemosh the abomination of the Moabites, and for Milcom the abomination of the children of Ammon, did the king defile.

1 Kings 11:5-6. He followed Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians, and Molech the detestable god of the Ammonites.  So Solomon did evil in the eyes of Yahweh; he did not follow Yahweh completely, as David his father had done.

1 Kings 11:33. I will do this (split the nation) because they have forsaken me and worshiped Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians…., , and have not walked in my ways, nor done what is right in my eyes, nor kept my statutes and laws as David, Solomon’s father did.

So the people of Israel removed the Baals and images of Ashtoreth. They served only Yahuwah.  (1 Samuel 7:3,4)

The women were engaged in kneading dough and baking cakes of bread for the “Queen of Heaven” (Jeremiah 7:18).

Jeremiah 44: 15-18 sated that the people actually believed that because they stopped worshipping Easter or the Queen of Heaven they were suffering. Jeremiah think contrary. It was the worshipping of Easter that caused the calamity.

JEREMIAH+44_15-18.Jeremiah 44: 23 Jeremiah replied, It is because you made offerings and because you sinned against the Lord and did not obey the voice of the Lord or walk in his law and in his statutes and in his testimonies that this disaster has happened to you, as at this day.”

Again, from the information in the Old testament, common sense, though uncommon, would dictate that if Easter was being worshipped before Jesus was born then Easter is not the recognition of Jesus’s death? Most importantly, it must be noted that the Creator punished peoples who worshipped Easter with the intention to get powerful. These countries flourished for awhile but suffer, eventually. Assyria, Egypt, Jerusalem, Babylon, Persia, Greece, and Italy.

THE LOGIC OF EASTER AS RECOGNITION OF JESUS’s DEATH?

The logic of Easter as Jesus’s death and resurrection is erroneous. Recognizing “Good” Friday as Jesus’s death day and Easter Sunday as his day of resurrection needs a high level of make belief if not schizophrenic tendencies. If we were to believe the scriptures and Jesus Christ, then Jesus Christ must be dead for three days and three nights. “For as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale’s belly; so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.” (Matthew 12:38-40).

By mathematics, Friday Night to Sunday morning was not, cannot and will not be three days and three nights. It is two nights and one day.

The big question then is: WHICH DAY DID CHRIST DIED?

Christ was actually killed or preferably, crucified at midday on a Wednesday and died by 3 pm that same Wednesday afternoon, the day before the High Sabbath that occurred on Thursday that year when Christ died.

If Jesus died at 3 pm, the day before the Sabbath, yet the day after this Sabbath, the bible said, the women went to get spices and prepared them and then went home and prepared for another upcoming Sabbath. It is obvious that we have two Sabbaths happening in one week and days apart instead of a week apart.

The Passover or High Sabbath was not the regular weekly Saturday Sabbath. 

Indeed, many of us do not know that the Jews had annual Sabbaths. As a matter of fact, two extra annual Sabbaths called High Sabbaths  are observed every year starting at Nissan 14 (March or April) in remembrance of the Exodus of the Israelite from the Egyptians under Moses’s leadership. As a result, there are two Sabbaths every year in a week in March/April.

The High Sabbaths don’t have to be on a Saturday as they are dates not days and can be any day of the week. They are celebrated to recognize the Passover and Israel’s miraculous exodus from Pharaoh’s Egypt.

Recall the Exodus story and the Passover? How Moses had a hard time convincing Pharaoh to let the Israelite go. Jehovah had to kill all first born in Egypt except those whose doors were marked with a Red Cross . Before, the slaughter, the Hebrews who had killed  animals for the last meal in Egypt, use the blood to smear the posts of their houses and the Lord passed over them and none was killed. Exodus 11:4-5. 

Ash Wednesday Passover

Hence the creation of the Passover and the two High Sabbaths which were required to be commemorated annually by the Israelite. Leviticus 23: 5 – 8.

As mentioned, these two holy convocation or High Sabbath sometimes fall in the same week of Easter and sometimes they do not. The year when Christ was killed, the week of Passover and the Feast of the Unleavened Bread (High Sabbath) fell on a Wednesday/Thursday with the next day, Friday evening being the start of the Saturday, normal Sabbath.

SabbathSummarily, the bible mentioned two Sabbaths during the week of Christ’s death. The annual High Sabbath which occurred the Wednesday evening Christ was killed and the weekly Saturday Sabbath, the evening he rose.

Still a bit fuzzy? Let’s use the Gospels as our guide to get a clear idea of the timeline for Christ’s death. By the way, remember that in Christ’s time, a day began at sun set or in the evening. Not at midnight as we now do in the West. So Saturday actually begins Friday evening and ends Saturday evening with Sunday beginning Saturday evening and finishing Sunday evening. Hope that helped.

http://www.eaec.org/bibleanswers/passover-week-two-sabbaths.htm

DAY/TIME EVENTS Days/night of death
“Palm”  Sunday
  • Christ rode into Jerusalem town
  • Went into the temple and whipped the money exchangers and turn over their tables. Felony?
  • Called the temple a “den of robbers and thieves”. (Slander?)
  • He healed some sick people and then spent the night in Bethany.  Matthew 21:1-16
0
Monday
  • Spent his time preaching in the temple
  • Spoke parables such as the wicked tenants,
  • Discussed his views on the right to pay taxes
  • Declared that the greatest commandment is that we should love the Lord thy god with all our heart, soul and mind.
  • Curse out the Pharisees.
  • Upon leaving the temple he told the parable of the 10 virgins.
  • Judas went to the authorities. Matthew 21:23-27
0
Tuesday
  • No teaching
  • Back to Jerusalem Matthew 26:17-19
  • Passover meal in the evening, at about 6 pm in Jerusalem.
  • Exposed Judas.
  • After the meal they went to the garden of Gethsemane
  • arrested and brought before the Jews later in the night. Matthew 26:47-56
0
Wednesday
  • Tried and whipped early morning, 9 am Matthew 27:2-50
  • Crucified at midday
  • Dead at 3 pm
  • removed from the cross, wrapped in linen and placed in a tomb before 6 pm.
  • No time to prepare his body for burial as they had to prepare for the Annual Sabbath in a few hours.
  • Annual High Sabbath (Feast of unleavened bread) begins at 6 pm.
First night (6 pm – 6 am)
Thursday
  • Christ is already dead. Luke 23:43-46
  • Annual High Sabbath (Feast of unleavened bread) continued.
  • High Sabbath ends 6 pm
First day (6 am to 6 pm)Second night (6 pm – 6 am)
“Good” Friday
  • Christ is already dead
  • After the end of the High sabbath Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, bought spices, that they might come and anoint the dead. Mark 16:1
  • Spices were prepared in the day on Friday but they had to stop for the Saturday Sabbath was approaching. They intended to come back first thing Sunday morning to anoint the body.
  • The women rested on the Saturday Sabbath day (starting from 6 pm Friday evening). Luke 23:55 – 24:1
Second day (6 am to 6 pm)Third night (6 pm – 6 am)
Saturday
  • Christ is already dead in the morning
  • Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James continue resting during the Saturday Sabbath until it ended on  Saturday evening at 6 pm)
  • Christ risen around 6 pm, Saturday evening.
Third day(6 am to 6 pm)
Sunday
  • Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James visit Jesus tomb on the Sunday, first day of the week. 6 am. Matthew 28:1-10
  • Christ already risen from Saturday (6pm)
0

If the gospels are right that Christ fulfilled the prophecy and was dead for three days and three nights, it questions the premise on which Easter is currently associated with Christ’s death on a Friday afternoon.

http://thewayofthemessiah.org/tsp.html

EASTER: GODDESS BUT NOT CHRISTLIKE

Easter, goddess of fertility and queen of heaven, is one of the great deities of all times. It is a pastoral recognition of the Spring Equinox, and although a figment of the imagination, her incarnation is glorified in myths and legends and rites and rituals.

Whether real or imagined, she has influenced our lives in many ways. As a pastoral pagan entity, her followers have done some ignoble things that would make it despicable to associate Easter

First commandment

with righteousness or with followers of Christ.

Spring Equinox worship, Venus planet deification, hot cross buns, bunny rabbits, eggs painting,  and human sacrifices are not really noble and Christlike traits despite the association of Christ’s name to Easter.

Of course, stars and full moon worship at the spring equinox make for great fireside tales but borders on schizophrenia masked with arrogance and power battles when used to influence our lives. This is utter darkness compared with the bright light of righteousness.

In fact, any attempt to turn darkness into light by giving the rituals and practices of Easter acceptability by simply designating the activities as those for Christ, can be dubious if not deceptive. With the fact that Easter precedes Jesus, attempts to continue this make belief that Easter is in recognition of Jesus is fruitless.

Easter or Ishtar is great by herself, and if people

first commandment 2

want to break the first of the ten commandments and worship her, it is okay. We have choices and if we choose to follow a multitude to do wrong: so be it.

The only noble thing is to let Easter and Jesus remain in separate camps so we can clearly without blinkers, see the things that are Caesar’s and the things that are Jesus Christ’s. That is the only way we can render to God the things that are God’s. Yeah. A clear understanding that Easter is now Christianity and that the real reason for the season is a battle between dark and light: Christianity/Easter the dark  vs Jesus Christ teachings, the light.

This year, 2018, Easter falls comfortably and fittingly on April 1 which is very suggestive if not profound. April 1 is All Fool’s Day but try not to be fooled.

VALENTINE’S DAY AND ASH WEDNESDAY : WHICH IS POISON?

 

VALENTINE’S DAY AND ASH WEDNESDAY

February 14, 2018 is very very special as Valentine’s Day and Ash Wednesday will be sharing centre stage on that day. Makes for great drama and intrigue. Romance vs Penance. No doubt, Valentine Day and Ash Wednesdays are not jokes and silly notions, however they have set up a climax with Easter Sunday falling on April 1, All Fools’ Day. Hoping no one gets fooled.

Chances are, this is the first time you are experiencing this unusual occurrence as the last time it happened was in 1945. Most of us know February 14 as the day when we deck out our red and white outfits; send poems and buy gifts; express love and romance and of course a lot of sex, lewdness and at times even debauchery.

Well, this year, Ash Wednesday finds itself on February 14 and is threatening to temper this aura of romance with its insistence on penitence, repentance, sadness, and mourning. What a contrast. Imagine mourning and fun and frolicking on the same day. Is this a choice?

Of course, you might be wondering which of the two rituals will win. Which will get more recognition? Valentine’s Day or Ash Wednesday? Will there be romance or penance? Maybe, there could be a draw with no clear winner. A bit of romance and a bit of penance. Hmmm, now that is complicated.

Then again it might not matter which one wins because they both serve the same purpose: they both are agrarian/pastoral attempts to get the favours of the gods to ensure a great Spring and farming. One does it with lewdness and one does it with shrewdness. The winner is the seasons or more simply, nature.

The Origins of Valentine’s Day (February 13 – 15)

(Februarius) February got its name from the thongs (known as februa) cut from the flayed skin of sacrificial male goats and dogs which were killed to favour the agricultural gods during that time of the year. Most of the observances in this month concerned the dead or closure, reflecting the month’s original position at the end of the year. It must be noted that the calendar had February at the end of the year but Julius Caesar decided in 46 BC to move the start of the calendar from the traditionally beginning of March to the beginning of January.

The spring cleansing ritual of Februa (February 13 – 15) involved sacrifices, lewdness and eroticism. It evolved into  the Lupercalia as called by the Romans or Pan as called by the Greeks. The Lupercus (god of the flocks) was nude, save for a goatskin girdle.

Valentine days Lupercalia
Lupercus, god of the flocks and , forerunner to Valentine’s Day

At the Lupercal altar, a male goat (or goats) and a dog were sacrificed under the supervision of the  chief priest. Goats and dogs were chosen as they are animals remarkable for their strong sexual instinct, and thus most appropriate sacrifices to the god of fertility.

An offering was also made of salted mealcakes, prepared by the vestal virgins. After the blood sacrifice, two Luperci (priests) approached the altar. Their foreheads were anointed with blood from the sacrificial knife, then wiped clean with wool soaked in milk, after which they were expected to smile and/or laugh. (Red and White on February 14?).

The sacrificial feast followed, after which the Luperci cut thongs (known as februa) from the flayed skin of the victim, and ran with these, naked or near-naked, up and down through the streets, for sport and laughter striking those they meet with shaggy thongs. Many women purposely get in their way, hoping to be struck, believing that the if they are pregnant it would help with delivery and if they were are barren they would get pregnant. (Mardi Gras or Fat Tuesday?).

The rituals also included a matchmaking kind of pixie draw, in which young men drew the names of women from a jar. The couple would then have sex for the duration of the festival — or longer, if the match was right.

Note that the Lupercali festivals and worship were practiced before the birth and death of Christ and was quite acceptable among the common folks and gentry. However, it was considered abominable by Jehovah and the Jews. With the conversion of Rome to Christianity in AD 326, attempts were made to “reposition” the idol worships of the ancient fathers into a frame of mind that would be palatable and more becoming for purists and folks who were “trying to serve Jehovah”.

Fortunately, by coincident or design, a priest named St. Valentine, was imprisoned by the emperor of Rome, Claudius II for assisting persecuted Christians and secretly marrying Christian couples in love. As the story goes, during Valentine’s imprisonment he tried converting Claudius to Christianity. Claudius became enraged and ordered Valentine to reject his faith or be killed. He refused to forsake his faith, so Valentine was beheaded  on February 14.

The story also included an account that happened during Valentine’s imprisonment after he tutored a girl named Julia, the blind daughter of his jailer. The legend states God restored Julia’s sight after she and Valentine prayed together. On the eve of his execution, Valentine supposedly penned a note to Julia and signed it, “From your Valentine.”

The Catholic Church declared him a saint and listed him in Roman Martyrology as being martyred on February 14. In the late 5th century A.D., Pope Gelasius I eliminated the pagan celebration of Lupercalia and declared February 14 a day to celebrate the martyrdom of Saint Valentine.

Interestingly, many of the traditions of Februa and Lupercalia were usurped or continued under the banner of Valentine’s Day. As mentioned, use of red represented the blood sacrifice during Lupercalia and the color white signified the milk used to wipe the blood clean and represents new life and procreation. The sex, promiscuity and romance were done to enhance fertility.

As seen, the rebranding of February 14 and Lupercalia worship as Valentine’s Day is an easier sell to get converts. Today’s discerning population will prefer to buy a product packaged with a chubby priest  than the use of that horrible looking half naked man dressed in goat clothing. Of course, we know an apple called by any other name is still an apple.

Such is the story of Valentine’s Day origin. Let’s look at the seemingly contradictory approach to fertility, called Ash Wednesday, that suggests penance and abstinence.

ttp://www.history.com/topics/lupercaliaSAINT VALENTINE

The Origins of Ash Wednesday

The worship of Lent is a fore runner to Ash Wednesday.  Similar to how Lupercalia became Valentine’s Day. The term Lent is a shortened form of Lenten, which derives from the Old English term lencten, which means spring.  This word is from the Old English root word lang which means long.  Lent thus refers to the Spring because it is the season when the days begin to lengthen.

In biblical times, Lent was a period of penance and abstinence for forty (40) days to mourn the death of Tammuz (a day for each year of his life as he was killed at age 40). At the end of the mourning, on a Sunday near the Spring Equinox,  Tammuz would come back to life and the agriculture would flourish and the animals fertile. The 40 day mourning and penance had to end on the Sunday after the first full moon after March 21 to coincide with the worship of Easter, the goddess of fertility.

Ash Wednesday Tammuz
Tammuz, god of fertility embodying the powers for new life in nature in the spring. (is that a cross?)

You may be curious as to who was Tammuz. As we will soon realize, man also made gods in his own image and likeness. Tammuz, the god of fertility, was one such god. He was paraded as the immaculate conceived son of a great woman called Semiramis who, some legend has it, later became the Queen of Heaven,  Easter or Ashtoreth as Isaiah and Ezekiel called her. (see below for more information on this mother/child relationship).

Lent was accepted into the beliefs of the Catholic Church at the Council of Nicaea in 325 AD. The council also settled upon the 40-day fast period as the standard length to celebrate Lent.  During this time period Constantine’s (emperor of Rome) goal was to combine pagans and Christians into a peaceable unit within the Roman kingdom.

In 601, Pope Gregory moved the beginning of Lent from the fourth Sunday of the year to Ash Wednesday, 46 days before Easter. This changed allowed for 40 days of fasting with six Sundays counted as feast days, for a total of 46 days for Lent.

http://www.bibleinfo.com/en/questions/ash-wednesday-bible

The interesting thing about Lent or Ash Wednesday is that it is attached to Easter. Ash Wednesday, the beginning of Lent, is determined after the date of Easter has been designated. Easter begins on the Friday after the first full moon after the Spring Equinox, which is March 21. By ecclesiastical rules, which fixes the date of the equinox to March 21, the earliest possible date for Easter is March 22 and the latest possible is April 25.

Accordingly, Ash Wednesday can be as earl y as February 4 and as late as March 11. It all depends on when the moon fulls after March 21 and counting backwards for 46 days from Easter Sunday to determine the beginning of Lent. 

Wait a minute. I am sure if you were brought up in a nice Christian home like I did, you will be getting a bit puzzled now. What does the full moon, and beginning of Spring (March 21) got to do with Lent and Easter? The answer is everything. They both depends on the full moon after the spring equinox.

To fully appreciate the origins of Lent and Easter we must look back at where it all started. Thousands of years ago, man was very dependent on nature and its predictable yet uncertain behaviour. They quickly realized that the Sun, Moon and stars had a far-reaching impact and influence on harvests and live stocks.

As reasonable folks or better yet, as shrewd folks, they tried to give reverence and recognition to this profound fact. Common sense would dictate that the reverence be given to the Creator of the sun and moon but guess what, so far, no one has seen the maker of the sun and moon.

So man, being as creative as he is, decided to make gods in his own image, likeness and understanding. A god for everything of great importance. The sun was called the god of life and the moon was the goddess of fertility. Venus and Cupid took care of Love and Thor took care of war. You get the drift.

The greatest thing about this multi theism was that these gods were not jealous of each other. Each had his or her own affair and actually worked together. (Contrast this with Jehovah who is said to be so Jealous that he is biased and prejudiced in that he will destroy those who serve other gods and take care of those who serve him).

Sentiments aside, let’s look at how the myths and legends explain the rituals and practices surrounding the worshipping of Lent and Easter.

According to the original and genuine Easter story, Ashtoreth/Easter (the goddess of fertility) was worshipped as the provider and re-starter of all life at Spring (March 21). She is also believed to be the deification of the infamous Semiramis,  the wife of Nimrod, of bible fame. Recall the tower of babel great hunter. We learnt about him at Sunday School and how he was against Jehovah.

It is unclear how Nimrod died as in in the Book of Jasher it is said that Esau, son of Isaac) killed him; while Josephus states that Shem, the son of Noah, killed nimrod. However, after his death, Nimrod body ascended into the heavens and became the sun god himself. A bit horrifying but here comes the romantic part. Nimrod, the sun god, became rays of light and implanted his seed into his wife, Semiramis now a widow, and impregnate her. (Virgin mother and child?).   Ash Wednesday semiramis.tammuz

The myth further stated that the child  was called Tammuz , son of the sun god. He was responsible for bringing light into the world and to fight darkness. Can you guess when Tammuz was born? If you said at the Winter Solstice (December 22 – 25) you are correct. For those steeped in religious studies, you will recall that Invictus Sol (the unconquerable sun) was born on the shortest day of the year or the Saturnalia (December 22 -25) and we worship him today every December 25. That is Tammuz. Some customs called him Baal, or Mithra and more recently Jesus Christ, to legitimize its worship. Again, an apple by any other name is still an apple. Click here to See my blog on December 25 worship

The myth climaxed with the idea that Tammuz, at age 40, went hunting and was killed by a boar (hog, pig..same thing….how fitting). In order to bring back her son (Tammuz) to life an elaborate scheme was devised. The idea required forty (40) days of mourning for Tammuz (a day for each year of his life). At the end of 40 day mourning, Tammuz returns to life on the Sunday after the first full moon after March 21. Abstinence from meat, self and lust was the order of the day for the 40 days of Lent. At the end of Lent, a boar is killed and ham is eaten. Sweet revenge on the pig that killed Tammuz.

As the myth would have it, Tammuz mother, Semiramis died and the gods looked favorably on her as she was the mother of the son of the sun god. She was sent back to earth as the Spring fertility goddess, Ashtoreth/Easter, always shown as a well endowed bare breasted  queen of fertility. According to the myth, she emerged from a giant egg that landed in the Euphrates river at sunrise on the Sunday after the full moon after the Spring equinox.

Semiramis, the queen of heaven, was “born again” as the goddess Easter (Ashtarte). To prove her divine authority, Semiramis, now Ashtoreth/Easter, changed a bird into an egg laying rabbit. Decorated eggs and stories about rabbits are still part of today’s Easter ritual.

Easter Ishtar

As the cult of Ishtar developed, the priests would impregnate young virgins on the altar of the goddess of fertility at sunrise on Easter Sunday. A year later the priests of Easter would sacrifice these three-month old babies on the altar at the front of the sanctuary and dye Easter eggs in the blood of the sacrificed infants.

You must be saying wow. You knew Easter was bloody but it was suppose to be the blood of Jesus, that was shed to save the sins of the world.

Indeed, Christians are quick and proud to recognized Good Friday and Easter Sunday as Christ’s death and resurrection day. It is with good intentions that they do such acts of passion but the evidence show that the crucifixion of Christ was only attached to Easter, 300 years after Christ died. Furthermore, the math and prophecies suggest that a Friday death and Sunday resurrection would not fit in with the “three days and three nights” requirement for the Christ to be dead and then resurrected. (Friday evening to Sunday morning is one day and two nights).

Interestingly, it should be noted that the new testament even mention Easter by name and being around at the time of Christ and the Peter the disciple. Acts 12: 4 state that And when he had apprehended him, he put him in prison, and delivered him to four quaternions of soldiers to keep him; intending after Easter to bring him forth to the people. (Seems the Romans were already worhsipping Easter). 

So the true meaning of Easter Sunday is originally for the day Tammuz was resurrected and neatly too the day when his mother, Semiramis, was returned to earth as Ashtoreth/Easter/Ishtar the goddess of fertility.

The major contention that many people have with the Friday and Sunday idea of Christ’s death and resurrection has to do with the fact that the Gospels mentioned Christ as being killed the day before the Sabbath. Of course we all know that Friday is the day before the weekly Saturday Sabbath. However, most elementary school students will let you know that if Christ was killed on “Good Friday” evening and raised from the dead on Easter Sunday morning, he would be lying or his math poor as this is only one day and two nights.

Why is this contentious? Well, if we are to believe the scriptures and Christ, then Christ must be dead for three days and three nights. “For as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale’s belly; so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.” (Matthew 12:38-40).

WHICH DAY DID CHRIST DIED?

If according to the “new” Easter story Christ died on a Friday and raised on a Sunday then we have a problem. Are the gospels wrong? The answer is no. Christ was actually killed on a Wednesday, the day before a Sabbath but it was not the regular weekly Saturday Sabbath. Many of us do not know that the Jews had annual Sabbaths. As a matter of fact, two extra Sabbaths called High Sabbaths  are observed every year in Nissan 14 (March or April). As a result, there are two Sabbaths every year in March/April.

These High Sabbaths don’t have to be on a Saturday as they are dates not days. They are celebrated to recognize the Passover and Israel’s miraculous exodus from Pharaoh’s Egypt.

Recall the Exodus story and the Passover? Well, before I graduated from Sunday School, I was taught the Passover story of how Moses got the Hebrew people out of the land of Egypt after being enslaved for years. Of course, the Hebrews were only set free after  Jehovah killed all first born in Egypt. During the slaughter, the Hebrews who had killed  animals for the last meal in Egypt, use the blood to smear the posts of their houses and the Lord passed over them and none was killed. Exodus 11:4-5. 

Ash Wednesday Passover

Hence the creation of the Passover and the two High Sabbaths which were required to be commemorated annually by the Israelite.   Leviticus 23:5-8In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at twilight is Yahweh’s Passover. 6 ‘Then on the fifteenth day of the same month there is the Feast of Unleavened Bread to Yahweh; for seven days you shall eat unleavened bread. 7 ‘On the first day of the 7 days you shall have a holy convocation; you shall not do any laborious work. On the seventh day is a holy convocation; you shall not do any laborious work.'”

As mentioned, these two holy convocation or High Sabbath sometimes fall in the same week of Easter and sometimes they are not. The year when Christ was killed, the week of Passover and the Feast of the Unleavened bread fell in Easter week, Wednesday (High Sabbath) and on Saturday, normal Sabbath.

For example, this year Passover 2018 will begin in the evening of Friday, 30 March and ends in the evening of Saturday, 7 April. As such this year we will see two Sabbaths in one.  The High Sabbath and the weekly Saturday Sabbath will both occur on Friday evening March 30, to Saturday evening March 31. On the other hand Easter is Sunday April 1. Noticed how Easter is always a Sunday while the High Sabbath and Passover can be week days or even the Saturday Sabbath.

Summarily, the bible mentioned two Sabbaths during the week of Christ’s death. The annual High Sabbath which occurred the Wednesday Christ was killed and the weekly Saturday Sabbath, the evening he rose.

Still a bit fuzzy? Let’s use the Gospels as our guide to get a clear idea of the timeline for Christ’s death.

http://www.eaec.org/bibleanswers/passover-week-two-sabbaths.htm

 

DAY/TIME EVENTS Days/night of death
Palm Sunday
  • Christ rode into Jerusalem town
  • Went into the temple and whipped the money exchangers and turn over their tables. Felony?
  • Called the temple a “den of robbers and thieves”.
  • He healed some sick people and then spent the night in Bethany.  Matthew 21:1-16
0
Monday
  • Spent his time preaching in the temple
  • Spoke parables such as the wicked tenants,
  • Discussed his views on the right to pay taxes
  • Declared that the greatest commandment is that we should love the Lord thy god with all our heart, soul and mind.
  • Curse out the Pharisees.
  • Upon leaving the temple he told the parable of the 10 virgins.
  • Judas went to the authorities. Matthew 21:23-27
0
Tuesday
  • No teaching
  • Back to Jerusalem Matthew 26:17-19
  • Passover meal in the evening, at about 6 pm in Jerusalem.
  • Exposed Judas.
  • After the meal they went to the garden of Gethsemane
  • arrested and brought before the Jews later in the night. Matthew 26:47-56
0
Wednesday
  • Passover ends at 6 am
  • Tried and whipped early morning, 9 am Matthew 27:2-50
  • Crucified at midday
  • Dead at 3 pm
  • removed from the cross, wrapped in linen and placed in a tomb before 6 pm.
  • No time to prepare his body for burial as they had to prepare for the Annual Sabbath in a few hours.
  • Annual High Sabbath (Feast of unleavened bread) begins at 6 pm.
First night (6 pm – 6 am)
Thursday
  • Christ is already dead. Luke 23:43-46
  • Annual High Sabbath (Feast of unleavened bread) continued.
  • High Sabbath ends 6 pm
First day (6 am to 6 pm)

Second night (6 pm – 6 am)

Friday
  • Christ is already dead
  • After the end of the High sabbath Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, bought spices, that they might come and anoint the dead. Mark 16:1
  • Spices were prepared in the day on Friday but they had to stop for the Saturday Sabbath was approaching. They intended to come back first thing Sunday morning to anoint the body.
  • The women rested on the Saturday Sabbath day (starting from 6 pm Friday evening). Luke 23:55 – 24:1
Second day (6 am to 6 pm)

Third night (6 pm – 6 am)

Saturday
  • Christ is already dead in the morning
  • Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James continue resting during the Saturday Sabbath until it ended on  Saturday evening at 6 pm)
  • Christ risen around 6 pm, Saturday evening.
Third day

(6 am to 6 pm)

Sunday
  • Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James visit Jesus tomb on the Sunday, first day of the week. . 6 am. Matthew 28:1-10
  • Christ already risen from Saturday (6pm)
0

Note that the Jewish day starts and ends at six o’clock in the evening, while our day starts and ends at midnight,

If the gospels are right that Christ fulfilled the prophecy and was dead for three days and three nights it questions the premise on which Easter is currently associated with Christ’s death.

http://thewayofthemessiah.org/tsp.html

For the fun of it, let’s take a quick look at Easter, as it was in the time of the prophets such as Isaiah and Ezekiel, thousands of years before Jesus Christ was born. Yeah,as we noted, Easter was around long before Christ was even born. Ashtoreth/Easter is mentioned in the old testament and in every instance that Easter is mentioned, Jehovah, the god of the Hebrews/Isrealites is pretty much annoyed, and in vengeance mode. A top flight Jamaican DJ, Bounti Killer, would say.. “cross, angry and miserable”.

Ezek 8:14 Then he brought me to the door of the gate of the LORD’S house which was toward the north; and, behold, there sat women weeping for Tammuz. (Lent) 

2 Ki 23:13 And the high places that were before Jerusalem, which were on the right hand of the mount of corruption, which Solomon the king of Israel had builded for Ashtoreth the abomination of the Zidonians, and for Chemosh the abomination of the Moabites, and for Milcom the abomination of the children of Ammon, did the king defile.

1 Kings 11:5-6. He followed Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians, and Molech the detestable god of the Ammonites.  So Solomon did evil in the eyes of Yahweh; he did not follow Yahweh completely, as David his father had done.

1 Kings 11:33. I will do this (split the nation) because they have forsaken me and worshiped Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians…., , and have not walked in my ways, nor done what is right in my eyes, nor kept my statutes and laws as David, Solomon’s father did.

So the people of Israel removed the Baals and images of Ashtoreth. They served only Yahuwah.  (1 Samuel 7:3,4)

These “images” are referring to the idols and statues of Ishtar, the fertility goddess of the Philistines, who is depicted with large, bare breasts.  (Some say she is now the  Statue of Liberty).

CONCLUSION

Valentine’s Day and Ash Wednesday have both been dear to our hearts for years. The romance associated with Valentine’s Day has allowed us to express love in many ways. The penance shown during Lent starting at Ash Wednesday, reminds us of our mortality and dependence on nature.

History, however is muddling this rosy picture of Valentine’s Day and is suggesting that Valentine’s Day is a mere continuation of Lupercalia, an ancient agrarian erotic fertility festival that was held near the Ides of February (February 13-15). The festival involved shedding the blood of a sacrificial goat and then dipping a piece of its skin in its blood after which it was used to smear the priests and then wiped clean with milk. (Is this the red and white).

Ash Wednesday has not escaped the glare of history. Many myths and legends suggest that Lent was also an ancient pagan festival devoted to Tammuz, the god of fertility who was the son of the infamous Semiramis who became Easter, on the Sunday after the full moon at the Spring Equinox. . The horrifying stories of three month old children being killed to appease these gods at Easter  might make Satan blush. Then again, they might just be his proxies.

With this in mind, it seems that although both Valentine’s Day and Ash Wednesday have served us well and seems to be good for us, they can be poisonous. Hmmm, Poisoning. Poison, but you are good for me?

Can’t resist the temptation to share a song done by my daughter, Aneil, called Poison. It’s quite befitting for Valentine’s Day. It tells of a heart that is being motivated and being made special albeit by something that is already “owned”. This dilemma is profound as it provides the choice of running away or staying and fighting and ruling the world with it. Seems, it can be poisoning but also good for you. Verse 1 lyrics are below. Please watch the video on YouTube by clicking here… ANEIL – POISON (Official Lyrics Video)

Poison

Verse 1

Aneil Poison You tube video artwork small version for yt
Aneil – Poison. Official lyric videos

Your love is poison
But oh baby I want it
And oh baby I’m ‘on it’ (ye ey ey ey ey)

Ya take my mind on a roadtrip
My mind can’t behold it
All the tantalizing things that you say

You do for me what sanity won’t
And that is to be your only girl
In reality it’s so wrong
Because you are already ‘owned’
Your love’s like that drug; can’t get enough
ECG shows my heart all over the charts

(Cho.)
You make me wanna ru-u-un, sta-a-ay, fight and rule the world (x2) with you
You’re poisoning
You’re poison, but you good for me

Do check out the song on YouTube by clicking on the Poison logo.

Maybe, this February 14, we can make it special with love and penance by sharing our time and resources with the less fortunate. That is godly and requires no ritual such as those on Valentine or Ash Wednesday. Just natural out-flowing love and sorrow that should be shown 365 days a year and 366 days in a leap year. Oh what a lovely world it would be.

OUTLAWING POVERTY: DREAM OR NIGHTMARE!

Being poor is not nice, is inhumane and it should be a crime, illegal and punishable at law. Yet, poverty is such a part of our society that we take it for a given. It is institutionalized and common place. Actually, being poor, for some, is so much a lot in life that many have resigned themselves to being poor. Adding to this resignation, is the fact that poverty can create a vicious cycle of persistent poverty. Indeed, poverty is so ingrained in the society that sociologists even have measurement for it. First class, second class and third class “poverty”.

Sadly, many people benefit from the existence of poverty as many great nations are built and structured with poverty as a main stay feature. Then again, some people are afraid that if the poor is no longer poor it might affect the current status quo. Others also find that when there are poor people around, they feel motivated because they can say they are better than “them”. Yes, for some the existence of the poor makes them feel adequate and fulfilled?  Some even believe that if there are no poor people the world would be in disarray?

So it begs questions: “Do we really want to see a change where poverty is discredited and everyone is living like “human beings?”

POVERTY: TO BE OR NOT TO BE

Ben Carson believed that Poverty is also a “state of mind”. 

Is poverty really a state of mind as suggested by Ben Carson, who believed that people with the wrong mind-set, will be poor. According to Ben, “you can give them everything in the world — they’ll work their way right back down to the bottom.” He added that helping people may not better their lives.

Interestingly, Mr. Carson then credited his mother for helping him focus on his education and rise out of poverty.  “If everybody had a mother like mine, nobody would be in poverty,” This aspect of Mr. Carson’s speech has not been underscored. WITHOUT ASSISTANCE HE MIGHT HAVE BEEN A BUM.

Then again, is it that the poor is a part of life and will always be with us as implied by Jesus Christ and as such it is fruitless to try and eradicate poverty? Matthew 26:11, The poor you will always have with you, but you will not always have Me. We must however hastily add that Jesus did suggest a fix for poverty when he advised his disciples  to “Sell your possessions and give to the poor” (Luke 12:33).

Unlike Mr. Carson, many people such as Nelson Mandela and Fidel Castro believed poverty was “created” and is real. Folks such as Marx and Lenin believed poverty is real and blamed Capitalism and market economies as the main contributor to poverty.

WHAT IS POVERTY AND ITS CAUSES?

Everyone knows poverty. You are either in poverty or trying to keep out of poverty. However,  the United Nations definition: “Fundamentally, poverty is the inability of having choices and opportunities, a violation of human dignity. It means lack of basic capacity to participate effectively in society. It means not having enough to feed and clothe a family, not having a school or clinic to go to, not having the land on which to grow one’s food or a job to earn one’s living, not having access to credit. It means insecurity, powerlessness and exclusion of individuals, households and communities. It means susceptibility to violence, and it often implies living in marginal or fragile environments, without access to clean water or sanitation”.

Image result for castro quote on povertyThe causes of poverty have been cited to include the inability of poor households to invest in property and education; limited access to credit; production of more poverty via inherited poverty and discrimination.

War and violence due to politics, religion or commerce are also some of the primary causes of poverty. Unemployment also contributes. 

How could we leave out Colonialism and slavery. Emancipation in 1838 saw the Blacks having their feet unshackled but their minds fettered. After years of forced labour, Blacks were set free with only their brawn and brain as their sole worldly possessions. Contrast the lot of the Africans vs their brothers, Whites, Indians and Chinese who all came over as free men and are the owners of the main factors of production.

OUTLAWING POVERTY

Image result for castro quote on poverty

Misanthropy is not a commonly used word but unfortunately its meaning is common among people, race,class and creed.  Having bad will towards fellow human beings is unmistakably and sadly prevalent in today’s society. Even the blind can see that with the level of knowledge, development and resource in the world there is no excuse for poverty. Yet poverty abound amidst much wealth.

Maybe the time has come for us to think about outlawing poverty. Poverty should become persona non grata. Government would put in the relevant structures, resources and policies to ensure that poverty is eradicated. Education and schools would be used to kill ignorance while tolerance, goodwill and understanding will be used to convert misanthropy into philanthropy.

Seriously, for just a moment, imagine if there was a law that made it illegal to be poor. Each person in poverty would be arrested along with the heads of government for the town or community in which the poor was found. In other words, if a person is found living in poverty, he or she would first be determined for fitness and if found fit then to the penitentiary at hard labour. The respective members of parliament or congress men would also be taken through the same process.  If the reason for the poverty is government oriented then the politician would be arrested.

Mark Zuckerberg
May 25, 2017. Mark Zuckerberg,  receives honorary degree from Harvard, his former university, 13 years after he famously dropped out to start Facebook. 

On a more palatable note, Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg is also concerned about curbing poverty but is calling for a universal basic income to boost personal potential and build economic growth. He is touting the idea of a universal basic income – where the government unconditionally pays all citizens a small amount of money to cover basic needs and to cushion them to try new things.”

Supporters of a universal basic income argue that people might decide to acquire more education or change their career, to make themselves more attractive to the labour market. Others might start a business. Finland and a few other countries are experimenting with the idea.

However, there is always the chance that it could be used as an excuse to work as little as possible and as such poverty should be outlawed.

IMPLICATIONS OF OUTLAWING POVERTY

One of the first implications of outlawing poverty is the need for a Paradigm shift in terms of our values and measurement of success. The usual “guns vs butter” economical decision will need revisiting and maybe empowerment could be the key motivator.

Full employment of human resources, and an educated and healthy nation supported by government could lead to the development of more innovation and technology. For example, Zuckerman admitted   “If I had to support my family growing up instead of having time to code, I wouldn’t be standing here today” (as a billionaire and owner of Facebook).

Of course there are some scary and unsettling implications for the outlawing of poverty. Just the thought of eliminating poverty by outlawing it, is a careless reckless idea conjured only by people smoking Champagne and drinking Havana cigars. There are no guarantees that crime and violence, diseases, and inhumane living conditions would be drastically reduced if poverty is outlawed.

Furthermore, being rich is motivational and who doesn’t want to be rich? Think of the displacement it could cause a few rich folks. (According to the 80/20 rule, 80% of the wealth of the world is owned by 20% of the population.) Wouldn’t this border on communism and authoritarian rule. Many will point out that it will even create a military police state which will deprive citizens of basic human rights and democratic freedom. Cuba is seen as an example.

Advocates of capitalism will let you know,that any attempt to interfere with the market structure will result in inefficiencies and bureaucracy. Of course, Cuba’s trump card would include the inequalities, inefficiencies and human rights violations that are traits and characteristic of capitalism and imperialism.

CONCLUSION

Ben Carson feels that poverty can be a state of mind and this is true. There are instances where the individual level of intrinsic or extrinsic motivation can help determine a life of poverty or wealth. Some misled folks also believe that some races are by characteristic lazy and not enterprising. Fortunately, we need not pay attention to such poppycock as the evidence shows that there are bums in all races. What is real is that poverty is an institution created by man and anything that man created can be destroyed. So far Apartheid and Slavery have been toppled and any effort to discredit and remove poverty should be welcomed.

Of course, outlawing poverty may see changes in the existing status quo and might require a paradigm shift. There will definitely be winners and losers to an extent but the glory will go towards humanity. There are no guarantees that a poverty free world will eliminate crime, violence and injustice but just imagine. Indeed, we may just be changing the types of crimes and ills but why stick to the evil we know  when we can venture into a new and exciting world.  Just imagine such nonsense. Poverty is illegal.

 

Clifton Neil is a university lecturer in marketing and a lover of history and literature. Contact – cneil@wordfoodmusic.com. Twitter. @cliftongneil

 

 

WHY BLACKS MARRY WHITE AND WHO CARES?

Image result for serena williams  and alexis

For her Winter Solstice gift, December 22, 2016, Serena Williams,  the 22-time grand-slam winner announced on Reddit her intentions to wed Alexis Ohanian, the 33-year-old co-founder and executive chairman of Reddit, who is a White man.

Of course the internet began buzzing and tweeting with positive and negative sentiments. Some folks even argued whether Serena can continue representing real Black women while marrying a White man.  Serena qualified all responses by noting that “when she dates someone she never sees color as she dates who she has chemistry with”. She also noted that Alexis has treated her better than any Black man she had dated and we know Serena has dated a slew of Black men including rappers Drake and Common as well as former NFL linebacker Lamar Arrington and basketball star Amare Stoudemire. Who feels it knows it. Then again, who cares?

Without defending Serena’s interracial preference, we must be cognizant of the fact that more Black men marry White women than do Black women marry White men.  Truth to be told, there are great catches, oops, great prospects, in every race on earth. In Jamaica we say, ” every hoe has its stick a bush”, meaning that everything has its fit.

It does seem as if Love, beauty, care, protection and compassion are not skin or race restricted. Neither are bigotry, delinquency, ugliness and poor parent hood restricted to race, class or creed. Indeed, the only person incapable of love is either dead or severely mentally disturbed.

HOW MANY BLACKS MARRY WHITE

According to http://blackdemographics.com/households/marriage-in-black-america/ in 2014, 14% percent of Black men were married to non-Black women which is up from 11% in 2010. Only half (7%) of those non-Black women were White. Similarly, the Pew Research Center released a report finding that 25% of Black male newlyweds in 2013 married non-Black women compared to 12% of Black women who “married out”.  However Asian women and Native Americans still have higher rates of interracial marriage. Black women were the least likely to marry non-Black men at only 6% in 2014, and only 4/% were married to White men.

2014 Marriage Chart

WHY THE MYTH THAT MORE SUCCESSFUL BLACK MEN MARRY BLACK WOMEN THAN WHITE WOMEN?

It does seem as if most successful Black men are being stereo typed as prone to marrying White women based on the conspicuous behaviour of plenty rap stars, athletes and musicians choosing to date or marry interracially when they achieve fame. Fact is that the same is not true for the bulk of successful Black men. By analyzing census data, Toldson and Marks found that 83 percent of married black men who earned at least $100,000 annually got hitched to Black women. The same is the case for educated Black men of all incomes. Eighty-five percent of Black male college graduates married Black women. Generally, 88 percent of married Black men (no matter their income or educational background) have Black wives.

On a sexual note, https://www.18karatreggae.com/2016/01/29/6736/, a study from Rutgers University in New Rochelle, NJ, has concluded that approximately 87 percent of American White women have had or fantasize about having sexual relations with African American males.  Interestingly enough, the same study says only 13% of white women said they would would marry and raise a family with a Black man.

CHANGING FACE OF BLACK WHITE MARRIAGES

Why are more people having favourable attitudes towards interracial marriage even if they would not do it  themselves? The major contributing factors would include legality, morality  and shift in attitude due to  change in values and the millennial kids now maturing.

Legality

The simply reason why more Blacks date and marry Whites is because it is now legal. Indeed, we are indebted to Richard and Mildred Loving, an interracial couple who were thrown in jail in Virginia for violating the state’s rules against multicultural marriages fifty years ago. In 1967, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled miscegenation laws—or laws preventing people of different races and ethnicities from getting married—unconstitutional. (By the way Loving is their real surname..lol). Please read this better than Mills & Boon real life love story at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loving_v._Virginia.

Now, Decades later, naturally, interracial marriage is now the highest it has ever been in the United States, up 14 percent compared with what it was in 1967 when the courts ruled in favor of Richard and Mildred Loving.

Morality

Genesis 2 vs 24 suggests a “man shall leave his father and his mother, and be joined to his wife; and they shall become one flesh” but  (Deuteronomy 7:3–4did not encourage the inter marriage of the Israelite with other peoples.  However, the reason for this command was not due to skin color but rather religious. It seemed God felt that people of other races were worshippers of false gods and the Israelite would be led astray from God if they intermarried with idol worshippers. Self preservation?

More intense, Hitler and his followers will let you know that race should not mixed as some races are inferior and will water down the real “master” race. (The verdict is still out. Science has not shown racial supremacy and The Old Testament writers can’t be subpoenaed).

Attitude change to Black-White Marriage

Americans’ attitudes about interracial marriage have changed dramatically over the past 55 years, moving from the point in the late 1950s when disapproval was well over 90%, to the point today when approval is approaching 90%.

Approval of black-white marriage is higher among younger Americans especially the millennial kids (18 – 34), and lowest among those 65 and older.  Yes, the millennial generation has grown up and now they are parents. Their attitudes, behaviors and perceptions are different from that of their conservative elderly parents and fore parents. Colour and race taboo have been significantly downplayed by them and even replace d by diversity, liberalism and alternative lifestyles.

However, Census data indicated that black-white marriages in reality remain fairly rare — although they have increased from 167,000 in 1980 to 558,000 in 2010, they still represented less than 1% of all married couples.

 

Ebony plays with Ivory.

Stevie Wonder and Paul McCartney seem to believe that it takes ebony and ivory to make music on a piano. Well, music played on a piano uses two colour keys: black and white. The white keys are more than the black keys yet music require both colours. Although a poor analogy, it is possible for some people to make music and possible find love doing inter racial.

THE CONTRIVED SUPERIORITY OF BLACKS VS WHITES

Fortunately or unfortunately, even the blind can see that since the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492 in the Caribbean and the Pilgrims on the Mayflower  in 1620 in the USA, Whites are “superior” to Blacks in status quo and power. The church, the school and the civic organizations all reinforced this false notion in an attempt to prolong the evils of slavery. In primary school we were subtly taught ” “If you are white, it is all right and if you are brown you may stick around but if you are black you better get to the back”. Peter Tosh defiantly added  “or get on the attack”.

Needless to say, apart from melanin and its accompanying nuances, Whites are the same as Blacks. They all have two eyes, ears, hands and feet. They both go to the bathroom, have sex, get kids, and are treated unfairly by narcissistic and chauvinistic males and females. Beauty abounds in all races and for proof, the World Beauty Pageant winners have not been restricted to Black and White women.

THE ENDANGERED BLACK MAN & WOMAN

Image result for michael jackson evolve pictures

Folks usually joke that the USA is such a land of opportunity that it can afford even a poor Black boy to grow up to be a rich White woman. Rudely, Micheal Jackson was used as the ideal example of this. However, many Black women in the USA and the Caribbean have also fallen victims to this “plastic” version of success and beauty. Indeed, Black women are spending millions of dollars each year to look WHITE and “enhance their beauty”. Many have processed their hair to get it straight as if they are ashamed of their so called kinky hair. Some have gone further by bleaching their skins to look white as well.

Understandably, we can be sympathetic with these black brothers and sisters who strive to be “white” and denied their charcoal skin. After all, as mentioned, for centuries Blacks have suffered the indignity of physical rape, robbing, kidnapping and killing mainly by the hands of Europeans under Slavery. They have been stripped not only of their garbs but also of their soul and mind and identity. Despite Emancipation in 1838 in the Caribbean and 1864 in the USA, the black psyche has been warped so badly that many Blacks have found it easier to look and behave like their former white slave owners than to struggle to be free mentally. There is little comfort in reminding them that the ancient Greeks also had slaves who were not Negroes but white men who had been taken captive in war.

A friend of mine sarcastically call these type of Blacks, “Oreo cookies” or “roasted breadfruit”: Dark skin on the outside but white beneath. His claim is that if a Black brother wants a Black sister, he has little choice as the sisters look like White women. He jokingly asked, “What does it benefit the black brother to choose a “black” white woman over a white woman. Is it better to have a real woman who is white than a confused woman who is black?” Quite a dilemma.

However, thanks to Marcus Garvey (1887 – 1940), his rally call for Black consciousness has not fallen on deaf ears and there are a few brothers and sisters have developed a sense of black pride that is creating a glimmer of hope.

Image result for marcus garvey on intelligence in different races

An excerpt from Albert Einstein’s Essay on Racial Bias supports Marcus Garvey’s cry for Blacks to “emancipate ourselves from mental slavery as none but ourselves can free our minds” in his 1946 essay on racial bias against the Blacks in USA.  https://onbeing.org/blog/albert-einsteins-essay-on-racial-bias-in-1946/

“A large part of our attitude toward things is conditioned by opinions and emotions which we unconsciously absorb as children from our environment. In other words, it is tradition — besides inherited aptitudes and qualities — which makes us what we are. We but rarely reflect how relatively small as compared with the powerful influence of tradition is the influence of our conscious thought upon our conduct and convictions.
“It would be foolish to despise tradition. But with our growing self-consciousness and increasing intelligence we must begin to control tradition and assume a critical attitude toward it, if human relations are ever to change for the better. We must try to recognize what in our accepted tradition is damaging to our fate and dignity — and shape our lives accordingly.
“I believe that whoever tries to think things through honestly will soon recognize how unworthy and even fatal is the traditional bias against Negroes.
“What, however, can the man of good will do to combat this deeply rooted prejudice? He must have the courage to set an example by word and deed, and must watch lest his children become influenced by this racial bias”.

CONCLUSION

I am still not sure if inter racial marriage is cool especially for the children of the union who find themselves mid stream, neither black nor white.  Yet, today’s society is wreaking such havoc on the institution of marriage that if a man or woman chooses to marry he or she should be commended because the current level of liberalism, alternative lifestyles and patterns of broken marriages can easily deter people from marrying.

The choice of to whom to marry should be each person’s prerogative since value and love lie in the eyes of the beholder. At the end of the day what is important is the extent to which the brotherhood of man can be pursued and attained. Of course, malicious self interest is misguided and Haile Selassie, Emperor of Ethiopia, begged us to ditch racism, class, and bigotry and get hitched with understanding, tolerance and  goodwill, In short, philanthropy vs misanthropy. Bob Marley put Selassie’s words of wisdom to music and came up with the thought provoking reggae hit, “War”. Then again, who cares.

Clifton Neil is a university lecturer in marketing and a lover of history and literature. Contact – cneil@wordfoodmusic.com. Twitter. @cliftongneil

DECEMBER 22 – 25: THE DEATH AND BIRTH OF THE UNCONQUERED SUN

 

SOL INVICTUS – THE UNCONQUERED SUN 

The Sun will “die” at midnight on December 21, but don’t panic, it will “rebirth” on midnight December 24. This occurs at the beginning of Winter every year for the past 4.6 billion years. It is called the Winter Solstice, “sun stood still”, and is considered the shortest day in the year in terms of hours of sunlight. It is a three-day period when the hours of daylight are at its shortest and the hours of night (darkness) are at its longest. Noticeably, the sun progressively sets earlier each evening after June 22 (The Summer Solstice – longest hours of sunlight) and night fall comes the earliest on December 21. Hence daylight savings time put our clock one hour back to make up for the shorter hours of day light.

 

Needless to say, the Sun is vital to our life here on earth and is one of the most important star in our world. It is the nearest star to Earth and is believed to be formed 4.6 billion years ago.  It is the most important source of energy for life on Earth and its diameter is about 109 times that of Earth, with mass about 330,000 times that of Earth. The sun accounts for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System and is so large that about 1,300,000 planet Earths can fit inside of it. Awesome. WOW. (Worthy of Worshipping?)

WORSHIPPING THE SUN

Well, our ancestors did just that more than 9000 years ago and it is still being done today. The ancients selected December 21, the Winter Solstice as the ideal time to invoke the sun. Maybe if you were living in the north pole and had long, dark harsh winters to deal with you might want to invoke the sun too.

In the solar myth, the death of the “old sun” occurs as the length of daylight decreases and bImage result for invictus sol unconquerable sunecomes its lowest at the Winter Solstice which begins on the midnight of December 21 (early morning December 22) and ends on Midnight December 24 (early morning December 25). The sun stop moving south on December 22, it is then at its lowest point in the Northern Hemisphere, residing in the vicinity of the Southern Cross. It stays at this lowest point for three days (December 22, 23, 24 appearing to not moving south or north and was considered “dead”

It “returned to life” at midnight on December 24/ early morning December 25, when it begins its northern journey again and the hours of sunlight start to lengthen. Therefore, the ancient said that the SUN was born on December 25. As a result, mistletoes, holly, wreaths, cakes, gifts, greeting cards and feasts were done to honour Sol or Mithra or Saturnalia as the case may be.

Interestingly, on December 24, Sirius (star in the east and brightest star in the night sky) aligns with the three brightest Orion belt stars called the Three Kings, (Alnitak, Alnilam and Mintaka) and on December 25, these all point to the location where the sun will rise on earth that day. In essence, the three kings follow the star in the east to find the sunrise (birth of the sun).

Image result for unconquerable sunSolar deities and Sun worship can be found throughout most of recorded history in various forms, including the Egyptian Ra, Mithra in Persia, Apollo the Romans, Isis the Hindu Surya, the Japanes Amaterasu, the GermanicSol, and the Aztec Tonatiuh, and controversially, more recent, Jesus in “Christianity”.

DECEMBER 25: BIRTHDAY OF THE SUN OR SON?

As a Baptist, I grew up with the belief that December 25 is the birthdate of Jesus Christ and as such we worship and acknowledge it as Christmas. Indeed, Christmas is big— very big. The entire Island of Jamaica comes to a virtual standstill. Schools and colleges are closed; businesses shut down to give their employees time off; many families plan trips and get-togethers; Church attendance increase; and gifts are given by even those who were scrooge all year long. Maybe you recall, the Christmas Carol that even erroneously say “ Long time ago in Bethlehem, so the Holy Bible said, Mary’s boy child Jesus Christ, was born on Christmas Day”
However, recall all these activities were already being done in Rome, Babylon, Persia, Greece, and Egypt to acknowledge and worship the birth day of Sol Invicta  (the Unconquered Sun) up to 4000 years before Jesus Christ was born. It then begs the question, whose birthday are we celebrating on December 25? Does Jesus the SON share the birthday with the SUN?

WHEN WAS CHRIST BORN? LATE SEPTEMBER?

There is no definitive proof of Jesus’s birthdate but there are clues about when he was or wasn’t born.

First, we know that shepherds were in the fields at night watching their flocks at the time of Jesus’ birth (Luke 2:7-8). According to Celebrations: The Complete Book of American Holidays , Luke’s account “suggests that Jesus may have been born in summer or early fall. Since December is cold and rainy in Judea, it is likely the shepherds would have sought shelter for their flocks at night”.

Second, Jesus’ parents came to Bethlehem to register in a Roman census (Luke 2:1-4). Such censuses were not taken in winter, when temperatures often dropped below freezing and roads were in poor condition and would be self-defeating.

Also, the conception and birth of John the Baptist gives an idea since Elizabeth (John’s mother) was in her sixth month of pregnancy when Jesus was conceived (Luke 1:24-36). From this we can determine the approximate time of year Jesus was born if we know when John was born. John’s father, Zacharias, was a priest serving in the Jerusalem temple during the course of Abijah (Luke 1:5). Historical calculations indicate this course of service corresponded to June 13-19 in that year ( The Companion Bible , 1974, Appendix 179, p. 200).

It was during this time of temple service that Zacharias learned that he and his wife, Elizabeth, would have a child (Luke 1:8-13). After he completed his service and traveled home, Elizabeth conceived (Luke 1:23-24). Assuming John’s conception took place near the end of June, adding nine months brings us to the end of March as the most likely time for John’s birth. Adding another six months (the difference in ages between John and Jesus (Luke 1:35-36)) brings us to the end of September as the likely time of Jesus’ birth.

HOW DID THE BIRTH OF THE SUN CHANGED TO SON?

According to scriptures, Jesus Christ was whipped, spat upon, publicly dishonored then killed by the Church (Caiaphas the high priest) and the State (Pilate the Roman governor). After JesImage result for invictus sol unconquerable sunus’s death, his followers had to go “underground” as they too were meeting the same or worse fate than Christ. These “Followers of Christ” (not Christians as Christianity wasn’t start as yet) were stripped and flogged with whips, stoned to death, and persecuted.

Yet, despite the persecution, the “Followers of Jesus” went underground and their church started to flourish and soon became a major concern to the Roman government. They were blamed for spreading “mischief” that Jesus Christ was king and lord, and was crucified to save our souls. Followers of Christ were also accused of destabilizing the economy and threatening civil war.

Constantine I. R. 306-337. Constantine was the 1st Christian emperor. Constantine decided to establish a new Eastern capital representing the integration of the east into the Roman Empire as a whole. He settled on the Greek city of Byzantium, located in strategic spot. The residents spontaneously decided to rename the city Constantinople. Relics of the True Cross & the Rod of Moses protected the city. The Church of the Holy Apostles was built over a temple to Aphrodite. It was the “New…
Constantine I.R. 306 -337. The first Christian emperor.

To stop the possibility of civil war and at the same time keep the existing pagan occult worships, Constantine, in AD 326 at the Council of Nicaea, “married” Christ like sentiments (name and life story) with that of Rome’s mysticism and called it Christianity. This new “Christianity” became the official religion of Rome and the SUN was replaced by the SON with Isis and Osiris became Mary and Jesus. December 25 was then decreed as Jesus birthday with the Spring Equinox full moon in March/April designate as his death day. In short, today’s Christianity is an unholy marriage of Roman Idolatry and Christ sentiments designed by Constantine to maintain religious and political if not economical order and harmony in the empire.

KEEP THE SON OUT OF THE SUN

Sol Invictus (Unconquered Sun) is a very important star in our solar system without a doubt. As the main source of energy, we can understand the need to recognize it and maybe even glorify its daily presence in our lives. Many people deliberately and some unwittingly  worship and glorify the SUN between December 21 – 25 to show appreciation. Unfortunately Jehovah is a very jealous god and considered Sun worship as an abomination 4000 years prior to the birth of Christ.

It now begs the question:  is the Son of God the same as the Sun of God? Is it now okay to use the same day to celebrate our Messiah’s Birth and the Sun’s birth bearing in mind the Scriptures do not sanction birthday celebration of any kind and Christ wasn’t born in December in any event?

According to a friend of mine, “December 25 is the most wonderful time of the year.  It’s okay if we buy gifts and put up Christmas Trees. Furthermore, the Lord will understand that “disobeying” and having festivities on December 25 is not in honour of the SUN, as pagans do, but is for his SON Jesus which is the reason for the season”. I smiled as I reminded myself that December 25 is the “silly season”.