The winds of change for the Black man are blowing in the air and you don’t have to listen carefully to hear. It’s been a long time coming, and you can feel the winds of change, blowing and growing from a wisp of fresh air, to a gentle breeze into a strong storm and  building up to a raging hurricane. It definitely is not the first and it might not be the last, but this is a chance to not relive the past.

Yes, it been much too long since Blacks have been trodding the wine press. It’s been too long Blacks been taken for granted and treated as mere “hewers of wood and drawers of water” and now put to the test.  Yes, change will be inevitable, but what type of change should we demand and pressure the oppressors to get? Modification of emblems or eradication of an unjust systems yet?


In the Jamaica Observer of June 25: an article titled, “GG rejects racist emblem: King’s House to seek revision of ‘offensive’ image showing white angel standing on black man’s neck”. According to the article, the Governor General (GG), Sir Patrick Allen, accepted as “offensive” a racist image on a British badge he is forced to wear on his breast on official duties.

Since Independence, Jamaican governors general have worn the breast star — one of Britain’s highest honours — with an image depicting a white angel standing on the neck of a chained black man, which has become a flashpoint in the Black Lives Matter protests against racism.

The GG, in an explanatory note, said the 19th century Star of the Order of St Michael and St George, two military saints, depicted St Michael, the Archangel (white/good), as being triumphant over Satan (black/bad). (The GG could have added that is what we are taught in school and at church. It is the system).

Paint st micheal emblem
Great idea of good over evil. Horrifying idea of White is good. Black is bad. Change the emblem or change the system?


The news release. continued, “However, in light of the heightened scrutiny of our iconography in Jamaica under-girded by our history, the Black Lives Matter movement in America, and related issues in the global sphere, it is evident that the image can be offensive”. As such, the GG would “request for a revision of the image to the Lord Chancellor of the Order of St Michael and St George”.

This revision might be considered a noble gesture by the GG. It is an appeasement. After all, he is adding to a growing list of people and organizations that is petitioning for the emblem to be changed. Some are calling for the removing of statues and changing of flags.

How do you feel? Is it enough? Too little too late? Will this change the lot and parcel of Blacks? Will the treatment of Blacks improve and they get equal rights and justice? Will the blood of the martyrs smile with us from the soil?

Think about it. Isn’t an emblem a reflection or embodiment of the system? The emblem is a symptom of the problem of racism while the mindset, laws and institutionalized  systems are the cause of racism.  All good doctors know that to get rid of a sickness, such as racism, one needs to treat the cause not the symptom.

Imagine a hotel offering nude beaches, gambling, drugs, and prostitution as its main service offering. On its logo, there are images of nudity, card packs, coke pipes and a “madam” with a whip”. These images reflect the hotels services and normal business operations. They have been operating like this for years but recently some decent “Christian” people saw the logo and cried out in opposition.

The hotel is facing a dilemma: change the logo or change the services or change both. Changing the logo is simple and less costly in terms of money, value and effect on current customers. It is mere artwork. Plus, a logo change would appease the few miserable “protesting” souls, while keeping the hotel’s focus and clientele. This is also a more feasible alternative since “behind close doors” some of the “protesters” do participate in nudity, gambling, and prostitution. Furthermore, most people don’t know, don’t care two hoots about what the hotel is doing. However, it would not be a genuine attempt to stop the ignoble services.  

The more noble action is for the company to change its operations (systems) and discontinue nudity, gambling and prostitution. This is the better option in terms of genuine commitment to changing the offensive behaviour and services. However this change would have far reaching consequences for the hotel and its stakeholders. Its core business would be gone. Its ardent and loyal customers would be disgruntled. Life as it knows it would never be the same. Uncertainty and even its very existence could be on the line.


As seen toppling statues and changing emblems will never change the dehumanization of Blacks. A simple apology for the over 400 years of English tyranny and colonialism and a change of emblems would be “smoothing feathers”. Unless all peoples are given equal rights and justice there will be throngs of unheard voices and a crowd and mob do not have a mind. They have a mood. Riots and rebellion will prevail.

As such, should we insist that the GG resigns? After all, he is the head of state and represents the Queen and her institutionalized system of degradation and enslavement of Blacks all over the world.

Should we insist that the government of Jamaica be dismantled and a national referendum held to determine a replacement for a truly independent Jamaican administration?

These are profound question that the weak of heart will find discomforting and even anarchically . Yet, a systematic institutionalized system cannot be changed by simply modifying an emblem. It requires action that will change the system from the core out. It’s a dilemma. Between the devil and the deep blue sea.


By the way, how many of us are brave or committed enough to ask that the laws of Jamaica be repealed so that they represent and reflect the wishes and conditions of most Jamaicans which is Black? How many of us would support the vocabulary of the English language be amended to remove or redefine words such as blacklist, black mail, black sheep etc?

How many of us would ask that the heartless mechanism of capitalism be replaced by a medium of exchange that shows brotherly love rather than “dollar for dollar and pound for pound”?

How many of us would support reparation payments for the 400 years of enslavement of blacks?

How many of us would boycott the products of cosmetic companies such as L’oreal, Johnson and Johnson and Unilever in Jamaica? Not only do these companies promote racism, they also benefit financially from the perpetuation of this crime. They use devious words such as “fair and lovely” and invariable all ideas of beauty are Caucasian based. The damage done to Blacks especially black women is irreparable. They teach us to hate ourselves.

Also, how many of us would sign a petition to outlaw Christianity and any religion that promotes inequality, a white God or any colour god? How many of us would support the burning of all religious artifacts and pictures that depict a white god or Jesus?


Uncle Toms, Oreo Cookies and roast breadfruits are sometimes more dangerous than the white man. Never forget that it was the blacks that killed Malcolm X.

Without being facetious, the prospects of most people wanting a change to the entire system would be like that of a snowball in Jamaica in any month. Sadly to say but most Blacks would find it appalling rather than appealing to topple the existing system that holds them in captivity and degradation. They would find a multitude of reasons why changing the entire system is not advisable.

Actually, you see, many black men/women are white hearted individuals. They process their children’s hair to socialize them to look “white” or even worse, bleach their skins too. They support the horrendous if not gory idea of their daughters’ ears being pierced to “beautify them”. They strive for vain and worldly progress determined and measured by white values. They discriminate against their own black skinned brothers and harbour thoughts such as “ black and ugly like”; nothing black no good, black like sin etc. They even buy their kids white dolls.

A friend of mine calls them Oreo cookies, roast breadfruit, zebras and uncle toms. He believes that Blacks wearing white people’s hair and paint and bleaching skins while protesting that black lives matter is a farce. Blacks striving to be rich by white and capitalist standards is hypocritical. Blacks talking about love and caring and every four or five years voting for a system that doesn’t give education free or provide basic needs for the Black population is patronizing. Blacks supporting a system where the economy prospers, and the Black population suffers is as mentally deranged as Adam Smith’s “invisible hand”. Blacks worshiping a white god is confusing. Indeed, worshiping any god with a colour is deceptive or deception. Sadly, many Blacks are a part of the problem.


The winds of change are blowing but we shouldn’t expect our ship to sail to its destination without some rowing and navigation.


So as the winds of change blow and the struggle against oppression continues let us remember that Apartheid did not come toppling down because of changes to an emblem. It was done after years of defiance, sacrifice and loss of lives that resulted in a change of government by ballot. As Peter Tosh said, “we have to fight, fight against apartheid”. Indeed, I am indebted to Peter Tosh for his contribution to the Black struggle and his song Apartheid could easily be one of the anthems for the current protest.

Peter’s Apartheid chronicled the ignoble regime that had our brothers in captive and degradation in South Africa. Peter Tosh was instrumental in pushing for the freedom of Blacks worldwide and it was regrettably that he died in 1987 before South Africa was set free in 1994. Although not around, Peter left us with profound words and his Equal Rights Album is memorable. “I don’t want no peace. I need equal rights and justice. Gve me my fair share of equal rights and justice”.

Okay. Okay. Bob Marley did contribute to the Black struggle too but he was not, debatable,  a firebrand as Peter Tosh. Interestingly,  I recalled Bob Marley erroneously, in his “Trench Town Rock” song , saying that “one good thing about music, when it hits you feel no PAIN”. Yet, I am sure you will feel some pain, oppressor or the downpressed, when you listen Bob Marley’s song, titled, Babylon System. Could be an anthem too for the Black Lives Matter movement. See lyrics below.


We refuse to be
What you wanted us to be
We are what we are
That’s the way it’s going to be, if you don’t know

Babylon system is the vampire, yea! (vampire)
Suckin’ the children day by day, yeah!
Me say de Babylon system is the vampire, falling empire,
Suckin’ the blood of the sufferers, yeah!

Building church and university, wooh, yeah!
Deceiving the people continually, yeah!
Me say them graduatin’ thieves and murderers
Look out now they suckin’ the blood of the sufferers (sufferers)
Yea! (sufferers)

Tell the children the truth
Tell the children the truth
Tell the children the truth right now!
Come on and tell the children the truth

‘Cause, ’cause we’ve been trodding on ya winepress much too long
Rebel, rebel!
And we’ve been takin’ for granted much too long
Rebel, rebel!

Got to rebel, y’all (rebel)
We’ve been trodding on the winepress much too long, yeah! (rebel)
Yeah! (rebel) Yeah! Yeah!

From the very day we left the shores (trodding on the winepress)
Of our Father’s land (rebel)
We’ve been trampled on (rebel)
Oh now! (takin’ for granted) Lord, Lord

Source: LyricFind



This video may get you teary eyed yet joyful and hopeful.  It was shot in South Africa and depicts how a set of buffaloes saved a young one from lions and crocodiles, despite the situation. It shows hope and what can happen if a set of preys or victims unite against their predators and victors.  If you noticed at times the herd is unsure or afraid of the vicious lions but as soon as ONE buffalo charged the rest followed.  Unity is strength and ONE can make a difference.While watching, be flippant, imagine the buffaloes are Blacks and the lions and crocodiles are Whites and Yellow respectively. 


BlackHistoryStudies on Twitter: "Until the philosophy which holds ...The solution to the problem of victimization and racism lies in the question “Who made me my brother’s keeper? Needless to say there are some White men who are more of a brother than Blacks are brothers to Blacks. Indeed, many times we are stabbed in the back by a man whose skin colour is black.

Summarily, as we strive for change, let us seek a change that uplifts all races, creed and nationality. A poem of mine from the 1983 “View” collection is fitting. 



MY BROTHER’S KEEPER – Clifton BUTTA Neil (1983)

We should all be our brother’s keeper

This would make life much easier;

With me looking out for you

And you looking out for me too.


Are you being your brother’s keeper?

If not so, what are you waiting for?

Do you realize you are the one

Who is putting the pressure on?


Be your brother’s keeper.

Help him to overcome.

If you are his keeper

His things are yours and yours his.



Of course, I couldn’t complete this blog without sharing my Poem “Pressure”. It’s a tribute to George Floyd and all those in the struggle of good over evil. Of course, the wind of change is not just for Blacks but for everyone who is downpressed and deprived of equal rights and justice. Let us keep the pressure on.



The Triangular Trade which consisted of 1) England financing the slave ships to 2) Africa where they collect slaves in exchange for trinkets and then transport them to the 3) West Indies and Americas as a forced/enslaved labour source for the plantation system in Jamaica which provided sugar, molasses and rum which was sent back to 1) England.  

The middle passage or route from Africa to the Caribbean was facilitated by the trade winds which blew the ships with slaves from North Africa all the way to the Caribbean and Americas. It is this same wind that carries storms and hurricanes to the Caribbean, and it is the same wind that gave us the dust storm, June 21 to 24.

The main time black is used positive is with accounts. When you make a profit, you are in the black. Make a loss you are in the red.




Think how exciting it would be to have a booklet that told you all you need to know about music copyright and publishing in Jamaica, and by extension, the United States. Well if you are like us: an unknown Indie or young music label trying to be known and wanting to do things properly and “by the books.” Well, we empathize with you. You see, since January of this year 2015,  just like you, WordFoodMusic want to think about copyright. Will it be our lyrics, our song and our music? Will it be a cover version? How do we protect our song from unlawful use by other people? How do we protect ourselves from unlawful use of other people’s material, how much does it cost to register copyright and how can we get royalties from our copyright material/songs?

In fact we are doing our music publication for an artiste , Aneil, who is doing her first single’ Let Me Be”. This was no easy task but we had fun prying, begging, seeking, knocking and getting the answers.

These are now simple questions to us, but earlier this year we didn’t know much and we had to painstakingly sift through the clutter and  sometimes daunting task of getting information. Knowledge is power and ignorance is not bliss. What you don’t know can hurt you in the pocket and in the mind.

In fact, having no copyright can be a wrong copy and if you take notice, big companies such as SONY, Universal Music Group and EMI, have entire legal departments dealing with copyright and publishing.

Of course, Needless to say, we know that new Indies and fledgling labels like WordFoodMusic, cannot afford such departments but you do not want to go the hard route we went.

Cheer up, have created your own “How To Copy Right Music in Jamaica” in order to help you know and understand the intricate yet important business of protecting you and your musical creation. This booklet looks at the nuts and bolts of copyright. It is choc full of information on copyright definition, caveats, advantages of registration, copyright registration procedures, rights and licenses and much more. So do treasure this little guide and look out for part two on How To Publish Music in Jamaica.


For the records, copyright and publishing is not as developed in Jamaica as is in the United States and getting the nuts and bolt of it can be very challenging as stated. Nevertheless, it is encouraging to note that with the advent of the updated Copyright Act of 1993, and upcoming amendments, organizations such as Jamaica Association of Composers and Authors and Publishers (JACAP), Jamaica Music Society (JAMMS) and Jamaica Copyright Licensing Agent (JAMCOPY) are helping to regulate and cut a clear pathway in the intellectual property arena.

Basically, under the law (Jamaica and U.S.), copyright begins automatically once a piece of music is created then documented or recorded, for example, on video, tape or CD or simply written down in notation of a score sheet. WordFoodMusic CEO puts it nicely, “Once it is affix, you are in the mix. No registration is necessary to own what you create. However, proving that you own what you had made is another matter”.

Both the Jamaican Copyright Act 1988/1993 and the U.S. Copyright Law, amended December 2011, put copyright as a protection for original literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works. It allows an original work to be considered a property that is owned by somebody, whether published or unpublished.

Having no copyright can be a wrong copy. Importantly, even if you see your friends or other artistes using other people’s work without permission, it is illegal and you should not, according to the Bible, “follow a multitude to do wrong”. This is still true even though you may see some producers, loosely, putting the words “cover version” or “adapted” on their cover records to show a form of respect. The reality is that this is still an infringement as any form of unauthorized use of copyright material is a violation of the copyright owner’s exclusive rights.

Remember, as the CEO of WordFoodMusic puts it, “originals are the real deal, but nothing wrong in covering a song, if you know the game and play along”.

By the way, the symbol for copyright is © although it may vary in some jurisdiction.


money image 2 Maybe the most important benefit of copyright is the inner gratification or moral rights of saying “ my song that”. However, if the song become a hit, then we talking money. 

Copyright is big business and the copyright acts of Jamaica and U.S. afford several important rights that can earn income for the writer, composer and producer of music. The main rights are Public Performing Right, Reproduction Right, Mechanical Right, and Synchronization Right.

  1. Public Performing Right is the exclusive right of the copyright owner to authorize the performance or transmission of the work in public: the right to decide how and when it should be played. When you buy any Aneil’s debut single, “Let Me Be” or download the MP3, Aneil, the copyright owner, through her agency WordFoodMusic, gives you permission to ONLY play the song for yourself, close friends and family. You do not own the song.

So, if you wish to play Aneil – “Let Me Be” to a wider group of people, for example at a Fish Fry on the beach, it is classed as a public performance and you must first seek permission (licence) from Aneil or her agent, before you do so. JACAP and JAMMS are responsible for this in Jamaica while ASCAP, BMI, and SESAC are responsible for the USA.

  1. Reproduction Right is the exclusive right of the copyright owner, to authorize the reproduction of a musical work as in a record, cassette or CD.
  2. Mechanical Right is the right to authorize the reproduction and distribution of a specific composition at an agreed upon fee per unit manufactured and sold. In Jamaica this is done by JACAP and JAMMS while Harry Fox Agency is the most popular in the U.S.
  3. Synchronization Right is the exclusive right to synchronize the musical composition in timed relation with audio-visual images on film or videotape.

Please note that even if you are covering a song to give away for free as promotional material, the copyright owner must grant you a licence before reproduction. In the U.S the going licensing rate is $0.091 (9.1 cents) per unit for songs that are five minutes and under in length or $0.0175 (1.75 cents) per minute or fraction thereof, per unit for songs that are over five minutes in length. Outside of the U.S., the royalty rate is typically 8%-10% of the list price.

An illustration, If Aneil covers Sam Smith’s song “I am not the only one” and wants to print and sell 2000 copies, Aneil must pay 2000 @ $.091) or $182 to Harry Fox or Sam Smith or his agent. Even if WordFoodMusic decide to give away the records of the cover song for free to promote Aneil, Sam Smith must be paid $182. Of course, if Sam Smith is contacted directly, he may allow free reproduction of that particular composition. Using, JACAP, JAMMS or Harry Fox where relevant allows the person wishing to cover a song to avoid hunting down the copyright owner to pay him/her.

BMI logo

JACAP logo imagaClick any logo to get to that website

No copyright is wrong if you are covering a song. . WordFoodMusic quote: “Originals are the real deal, but nothing wrong in covering a song, if you know the game and play along”.                            

Now imagine the interesting scenario of Aneil, without permission, making a cover of Sam Smith’s song (MP3) and offer it for free online, and the song gets millions of free downloads. It simply means that this breach can result in Sam Smith and his publisher claiming stiff statutory damages, civil and criminal. As much as $30,000 or more per offense when it comes to people who knew or probably knew that they were infringing on the rights of others. Similar large sums are also applicable in Jamaica.





Click logo to get to that website.

Registration establishes a public record of the copyright claim. (The song’s birth certificate) and before an infringement suit may be filed in court, registration is necessary for works of U. S. origin.

Since registration of copyright is not compulsory, why should one register with the US Copyright Office and “waste” $35 on copyright registration? Basically, the most important reasons according to the U.S. Copyright Act include the fact that Registration establishes a public record of the copyright claim. (The song’s birth certificate) and before an infringement suit may be filed in court, registration is necessary for works of U. S. origin. Basically, if made before or within five years of publication, registration will establish prima facie evidence in court of the validity of the copyright and of the facts stated in the certificate.

A super incentive is that if registration is made within three months after publication of the work or prior to an infringement of the work, statutory damages and attorney’s fees will be available to the copyright owner in court actions, in the U.S.

As a result of the rights afforded by copyright, there are several ways the copyright owner can earn money:

  1. Mechanical – Digital Downloads, Streaming Services and Physical Products (CD’s, Cassettes, Phonographs, 8 Tracks etc)
  2. Public Performance – Interactive and Non Interactive Streaming Services, Radio, TV, Live Performance, Downloads
  3. Synchronization – TV, Film, Commercials
  4. Print – Songbooks, Sheet Music Physical and Online (digital) versions
  5. Ringtones

Currently, in Jamaica, copyright generally lasts for a period of 50 years from the end of the calendar year in which the author dies. In the U.S. it is 70 years after the composer’s death.


mail egistered The Poor man’s copyright is a nice way to help show that you were in possession of the work at a particular date based on the postal stamp mark. However, although figures don’t lie, liars can figure and this is not a fool proof way. After all, how does one prove it is a genuine mail, not tampered with and a colleague at the post office did not stamp it (back dated).
  1. (Poor man’s Copyright). Send a copy of the work to yourself by registered mail, via the post office, leaving the envelope unopened and stored in safe place together with receipt from the post office
  2. Deposit a copy of the work(s) to the National Library of Jamaica. Also note that it is a requirement under the Legal Deposits Act, that a copy of all library matter published in Jamaica ,including books, CDs, DVDs, must be deposited with the National Library of Jamaica for archival and historical purposes. This also provides a public record supporting an author’s claim of copyright
  1. Deposit a copy of the song(s) with an Attorney-at-law (you may be required to pay legal fees.
  2. The U.S. Copyright Act allows for a formal registration and protection of creators’ rights (birth certificate). This is done by registering the work with the US Copyright Office. To do so simply visit and preferably, register online. Online registration is faster and cheaper. The online fee for a single song owned by the writer is $35 while all other online application fee is $55. To register using printed forms and offline is $85. The application process takes up to 8 months if done via e-Filing and up to 13 months if done via Paper Form offline. Similar to Jamaica, a copy of the registered work is to be deposited with the Library of Congress.

Please note: Jamaicans may register their songs with the US Copyright Office even though the song was produced and published in Jamaica.


If you are making music, whether your own composition or you plan to cover other artistes’ songs, copyright and its legal implications must be at the fore front of your project. Copyright is simple the ownership of the rights to ones creation of a song. There is no need to register one’s copyright in a song as it is automatically created the minute the song is fixed in a medium such as CD or online downloads or music sheet. The song doesn’t have to be published to gain copyright. “Once it is fix, you are in the mix”

It is not possible to register a song in Jamaica but the use of Poor man’s copyright and depositing the song at the National Library of Jamaica will help in providing proof of association with the song at a particular date. Jamaicans can, however, register their songs with relative ease at the U.S. Copyright Office for a modest sum of money. Copy rights ownership afford the creator several important rights such as Public Performing Right, Reproduction Right, Mechanical Rights, and Synchronization Rights. All these rights can earn the considerable amount of money if realized. Infringing on the right of a copyright owner can result in stiff statutory fines. As such, it is better to pay a modest fee (licence) to use other people’s music rather than be liable for thousands of dollars in statutory fines, lack of peace of mind and embarrassment. “if you have no copyright , you doing a wrong copy.”

 Remember, Copyright Law provides the ability for anyone to record and sell a cover song, so long as he/she notifies the copyright holder properly and agree to pay the statutory royalty for each copy made and distributed.

There is much fun, in creating and developing music, but for many, the real gravy is in the returns made from the copyright and it is critical that we give credit where it is due.

Writer’s note: Clifton “NOTCLIF” Neil is an avid writer, marketer and university teacher, in Jamaica, who has taken up the challenge of providing simple “How to books” on topics such as copyright, publishing, and music marketing. You may have the full text of this publication, in e-book form, FOR FREE, by simply visiting our website, check it out and sign up for free newsletter and other upcoming publications.

Click on the e-book below to get your free copy of “How To Copyright Music in Jamaica”.

Aneil – Let Me Be Lyrics video on YouTube
Aneil – Let Me Be song on Sound Cloud
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Hello world! Heights of great musicians were reached by craft or by chance?

Heights of great musicians reached - the beatles

Not many people have had great dreams of smallness. Yet smallness of dreams has had a great many people. In fact, great dreams, small dreams and even no dreams people have become great. Indeed, I am still not sure if heights of great musicians were reached by chance or by craft? I am here, rolling over these thoughts in my head as I watched my daughter recording her first international recording with the maestro, Grub Cooper of Jamaican Fame Fab Five Band in Kingston, Jamaica. The single “Let it be me”, is due for release in Mid 2015 and I was busily searching for answers: how can I help make her a great name in the music business.
Maybe, greatness happened because of luck or chance and not because of craft. No, don’t go yet, read on. Not saying Bob Marley and The Beatles and Featured imagethose greats didn’t have craft. On the contrary, they had lots of talent, industriousness, commitment and drive that pushed them against the odds even when, as Bob Marley said, in his hit song, I shot the sheriff, “Every time I plant a seed, he said kill it before it grows.”

Back to chance and success. What is chance? My Little Oxford Dictionary said Chance is “absence of design or discoverable cause.” So, it could be argued that if it was not for the chance (or was it by design) meeting up of The Beatles with Brian Epstein in 1961 and Bob Marley’s and the Wailers with Chris Blackwell in 1971, both could have remained as unknowns. Obscure. Do you know any talented musicians that are not great because of a lack of chance? Are there any popular musicians whose craft are terrible but they became great because of chance?
Goodness, my daughter has finished recording the song and I hope it becomes a hit. Five (5) hours run fast when your having fun or thinking hard. Nevertheless, the verdict is still out: greatness is a result of chance and or craft. Which is it really? Hung jury?

As we sat and listened the recording, everyone was happy with the production and was sure we have an international hit. However, there aren’t many guarantees, and as words to the wise: maybe we shouldn’t depend on our craft to get us a chance in life and similarly we shouldn’t depends on chance to get our craft in life. A good combination is a welcomed state. So while we are honing and developing our craft and music, we should also develop our social skills. After all, as can be seen, The Beatles and Bob Marley were good musicians but their success and greatness really got full bloomed when they met Brian and Chris respectively, who convinced them to change their images. So, do your craft and interact with people lots. Never can tell which will be your success ticket: craft or chance or both. Whatever you do, be happy.
On the note of happy, we would be happy if you checked out my daughter’s music at as we still try to pinpoint if heights of great musicians were reached by craft or chance.